Research Article| Volume 20, ISSUE 1, P21-31, February 2006

The BE SMART Trauma Reframing Psychoeducation Program


      Despite the human capacity to survive and adapt, traumatic experiences can cause alterations in health, attitudes and behaviors, environmental and interpersonal functioning, and spiritual balance such that the memory of an event or a set of events taints all other experiences. The BE SMART (Become Empowered: Symptom Management for Abuse and Recovery from Trauma) group psychoeducation program is a 12-week course designed for both men and women to learn wellness coping principles in recovering from the aftermaths of trauma and abuse. The course is based on the Murphy–Moller Wellness Model [Murphy, M. F., & Moller, M. D. (1996). The Three R's Program: A Wellness Approach to Rehabilitation of Neurobiological Disorders. The International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research, 3(1), 308–317] and the Trauma Reframing Therapy [Rice, M. J., & Moller, M. D. (2003). Wellness Outcomes of Trauma Psychoeducation. Podium presentation at the 2003 Meeting of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. Atlanta, Georgia. October].
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Barlow S.H.
        Group therapy for victims of sexual abuse.
        International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 2001; 51: 131-134
        • Bisson J.I.
        • Shepherd J.P.
        • Joy D.
        • Probert R.
        • Newcombe R.G.
        Early cognitive–behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress symptoms after physical injury. Randomised controlled trial.
        British Journal of Psychiatry. 2004; 184: 63-69
        • Bonne O.
        • Brandes D.
        • Gilboa A.
        • Gomori J.M.
        • Shenton M.E.
        • Pitman R.K.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal MRI study of hippocampal volume in trauma survivors with PTSD.
        American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001; 158: 1248-1251
        • Bremner J.D.
        Alterations in brain structure and function associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.
        Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry. 1999; 4: 249-255
        • Bremner J.D.
        Neuroimaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder.
        Current Psychiatry Reports. 2002; 4: 254-263
        • Damasio A.
        The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness.
        Harcourt, Inc., New York1999
        • den Herder D.
        • Redner L.
        The treatment of childhood sexual trauma in chronically mentally ill adults.
        Health and Social Work. 1991; 16: L50-L57
        • Evans K.
        • Sullivan M.
        Treating addicted survivors of trauma.
        Guilford Press, New York1995
        • Famularo R.
        • Fenton T.
        • Kinscherff R.
        • Augustyn M.
        Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Child Abuse and Neglect. 1996; 20: 953-961
        • Foa E.B.
        • Kozak M.J.
        Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information.
        Psychological Bulletin. 1986; 99: 20-35
        • Goodman L.A.
        • Thompson K.M.
        • Weinfurt K.
        • Corl S.
        • Acker Pl.
        • Mueser K.T.
        • et al.
        Reliability of reports of violent victimization and posttraumatic stress disorder among men and women with serious mental illness.
        Journal of Traumatic Stress. 1999; 12: 587-599
        • Gunderson J.G.
        • Chu J.A.
        Treatment implications of past trauma in borderline personality disorder.
        Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 1993; 1: 75-81
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Bryant R.A.
        • Tarrier N.
        Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Clinical Psychology Review. 2003; 23: 501-522
        • Heitkemper M.
        • Jarret M.
        • Taylor P.
        • Walker E.
        • Landenburger K.
        • Bond E.
        Effect of sexual and physical abuse on symptom experiences in women with irritable bowel syndrome.
        Nursing Research. 2001; 50: 15-23
        • Hryvniak M.
        • Rosse R.
        Concurrent psychiatric illness in inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder.
        Military Medicine. 1989; 154: 399-401
        • Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Heath Care Organizations
        Spiritual assessment.
        (Revised, April 1, 2005. Accessed from the World Wide Web July 9, 2005 from)
        • Lanius R.A.
        • Tuhan I.
        Stage-oriented trauma treatment using dialectical behaviour therapy.
        Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 48: 126-127
        • LeDoux J.
        The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life.
        Touchstone, New York1996
        • Mazzeo S.E.
        • Espelage D.L.
        Association between childhood physical and emotional abuse and disordered eating behaviors in female undergraduates: An investigation of the mediating role of alexithymia and depression.
        Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2002; 49: 86-100
        • McLean L.M.
        • Gallop R.
        Implications of childhood sexual abuse for adult borderline personality disorder and complex posttraumatic stress disorder.
        American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 369-371
        • Moller M.D.
        • Murphy M.F.
        The Three R's Rehabilitation Program: A prevention approach for the management of relapse symptoms associated with psychiatric diagnoses.
        Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation. 1997; 20: 42-48
        • Moller M.D.
        • Murphy M.F.
        Become empowered: Symptom management for abuse and recovery from trauma.
        Psychiatric Resource Network, Nine Mile Falls, WA2001
        • Morgan T.
        • Cummings A.L.
        Change experienced during group therapy by female survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
        Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1999; 67: 28-36
        • Murphy M.F.
        • Moller M.D.
        The Three R's Program: A wellness approach to rehabilitation of neurobiological disorders.
        The International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research. 1996; 3: 308-317
        • Nicholas M.
        • Forrester A.
        Advantages of heterogeneous therapy groups in the psychotherapy of the traumatically abused: Treating the problem as well as the person.
        International Journal of Group Psychotherapy. 1999; 49: 323-342
        • Paunovic N.
        Prolonged exposure counterconditioning as a treatment for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2003; 17: 479-499
        • Read J.
        • Ross C.
        Psychological trauma and psychosis: Another reason why people diagnosed schizophrenic must be offered psychological therapies.
        The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry. 2003; 31: 247-268
        • Rice M.J.
        • Moller M.D.
        Wellness outcomes of trauma psychoeducation.
        in: Podium presentation at the 2003 meeting of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association. Atlanta, Georgia. October2003
        • Ross C.
        The trauma model: A solution to the problem of co-morbidity in psychiatry.
        Manitou Communications, Richardson, TX2000
        • Sapolsky R.M.
        Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders.
        Archives of General Psychiatry. 2002; 57: 925-935
        • Smith S.
        The effect of EMDR on the pathophysiology of PTSD.
        International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 2003; 5: 85-91
        • van der Kolk B.
        • McFarlane A.
        • Weisaeth L.
        Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society.
        Guilford, New York1996
        • Wilson S.A.
        • Becker L.A.
        • Tinker R.H.
        Fifteen-month follow-up of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and psychological trauma.
        Journal of Consultation and Clinical Psychology. 1997; 65: 1047-1056
        • Wolfsdorf B.A.
        • Zlotnick C.
        Affect management in group therapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of childhood sexual abuse.
        Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2001; 57: 169-181