Advertisement

Postnatal Depression in First-Time Mothers: Prevalence and Relationships Between Functional and Structural Social Support at 6 and 12 Weeks Postpartum

Published:November 12, 2010DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2010.08.005
      Postnatal depression (PND) is a significant public health issue, with variable prevalence and a dearth of research on risk and protective factors. This quantitative longitudinal study of 512 first-time mothers identified the prevalence of PND and examined the relationships between functional and structural social support at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of PND was 13.2% at 6 weeks and 9.8% at 12 weeks. At 6 and 12 weeks, the only social support dimension independently associated with PND was total functional social support. At-birth formal structural support and emotional functional support were independently predictive of PND at 12 weeks.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Barclay L.
        • Everett L.
        • Rogan F.
        • Schmied V.
        • Wyllie A.
        Becoming a mother—An analysis of women's experience of early motherhood.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1997; 25: 719-728
        • Beck C.
        The lived experience of postpartum depression: A phenomenological study.
        Nursing Research. 1992; 41: 166-170
        • Beck C.
        Teetering on the edge: A substantive theory of postpartum depression.
        Nursing Research. 1993; 42: 42-48
        • Beck C.
        The effects of postpartum depression on maternal–infant interaction: A meta-analysis.
        Nursing Research. 1995; 44: 298-304
        • Beck C.
        Maternal depression and child behaviour problems: A meta-analysis.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1999; 29: 623-629
        • Beck C.
        • Gable R.
        Postpartum depression screening scale: Development and psychometric testing.
        Nursing Research. 2000; 49: 272-282
        • Beck C.
        • Gable R.
        Comparative analysis of the performance of the postpartum depression screening scale with two other depression instruments.
        Nursing Research. 2001; 50: 242-250
        • Beck C.
        • Indman P.
        The many faces of postpartum depression.
        JOGNN–Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. 2005; 34
        • Blau P.
        Exchange and power in social life.
        Wiley & Sons, London1964 (,pp. 569-576)
        • Chan S.
        • Levy V.
        Postnatal depression: A qualitative study of the experiences of a group of Hong Kong Chinese women.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2004; 13: 120-123
        • Chen C.M.
        • Kuo S.F.
        • Chou Y.H.
        • Chen H.C.
        Postpartum Taiwanese women: Their postpartum depression, social support and health-promoting lifestyle profiles.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2007; 16: 1550-1560
        • Cox J.
        • Holden J.
        Perinatal mental health (a guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale).
        Gaskell, London2003
        • Cox J.
        • Holden J.
        • Sagovsky R.
        Detection of postnatal depression—Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
        British Journal of Psychiatry. 1987; 150: 782-786
        • Cronenwett L.
        Parental network structure and perceived support after birth of first child.
        Nursing Research. 1985; 34: 347-352
        • Crotty F.
        • Sheehan J.
        Prevalence and detection of postnatal depression in an Irish community sample.
        Irish Journal of Psychiatric Medicine. 2004; 21: 117-121
        • Cryan E.
        • Keogh F.
        • Connolly E.
        • Cody S.
        • Quinlan A.
        • Daly I.
        Depression among postnatal women in an urban Irish Community.
        Irish Journal of Psychiatric Medicine. 2001; 18: 5-10
        • Dennis C.
        The effect of peer support on postpartum depression: A pilot randomized controlled trial.
        Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 48: 115-124
        • Dennis C.
        • Kingston D.
        A systematic review of telephone support for women during pregnancy and the early postpartum period.
        Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2008; 37: 301-314
        • Dennis C.L.
        • Ross L.
        Women's perceptions of partner support and conflict in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2006; 56: 588-599
        • Ege E.
        • Timur S.
        • Zincir H.
        • Geçkil E.
        • Sunar-Reeder B.
        Social support and symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in Eastern Turkey.
        Journal of Obstetric & Gynaecologic Research. 2008; 34: 585-593
        • Eisenach J.
        • Pana P.
        • Smileya R.
        • Lavand'hommea P.
        • Landaua R.
        • Houle T.
        Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression.
        Pain. 2008; 140: 87-94
        • Emmanuel E.
        • Creedy D.
        • St John W.
        • Gamble J.
        • Brown C.
        Maternal role development following childbirth among Australian women.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008; 64: 18-26
        • England S.
        • Allard C.
        • George S.
        Chronicity in postnatal depression.
        European Journal of Psychiatry. 1994; 8: 93-96
        • Gao L.
        • Chan S.
        • Mao Q.
        Depression, perceived stress, and social support among first-time Chinese mothers and fathers in the postpartum period.
        Research in Nursing & Health. 2008; https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20306
        • Glasser S.
        • Barell V.
        • Boyko V.
        • Ziv A.
        • Lusky A.
        • Shoham A.
        • Hart S.
        Postpartum depression in an Israeli cohort: Demographic psychosocial and medical risk factors.
        Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2000; 21: 99-108
        • Gotlib I.
        • Whiffen V.
        • Mount J.
        • Milne K.
        • Cordy N.
        Prevalence rates and demographic characteristics associated with depression in pregnancy and the postpartum.
        Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1989; 57: 269-274
        • Greene S.
        • Nugent J.
        • Weieczorek-Deering D.
        • O'Mahony P.
        • Graham R.
        The pattering of depressive symptoms in a sample of first time mothers.
        The Irish Journal of Psychology. 1991; 12: 263-275
        • Guedeney N.
        • Fermanian J.
        • Guelfi J.
        • Kumar R.
        The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the detection of major depressive disorders in early postpartum: Some concerns about false negatives.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2000; 61: 107-112
        • Haggerty Davis J.
        • Brucker M.
        • MacMullen M.
        A study of mothers' postpartum teaching priorities.
        Maternal-Child Nursing. 1988; 17: 41-50
        • Häggman-Laitila A.
        Early support needs of Finnish families with small children.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2003; 41: 595-606
        • Holden J.
        • Sagovsky R.
        • Cox J.
        Counselling in a general practice setting; controlled study of health visitor intervention in treatment of postnatal depression.
        British Medical Journal. 1989; 298: 223-226
        • Homans G.
        Social behaviour: Its elementary forms.
        Routledge, London1961
        • Inandi T.
        • Elci O.
        • Ozturk A.
        • Egri M.
        • Polat A.
        • Sahin T.
        Risk factors for depression in postnatal first year, in eastern Turkey.
        International Journal of Epidemiology. 2002; 31: 1201-1207https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.6.1201
        • Kim Y.
        • Hur J.
        • Kim K.
        • Oh K.
        • Shin Y.
        Prediction of postpartum depression by sociodemographic, obstetric and psychological factors: A prospective study.
        Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2008; 62: 331-340
        • Kiehl E.M.
        • White M.A.
        Maternal adaptation during childbearing in Norway, Sweden and the United States.
        Scand J Caring Sci. 2003; 17: 96-103
        • Lane A.
        • Keville R.
        • Morris M.
        • Kinsella M.
        • Turner M.
        • Barry S.
        Postnatal depression and elation among mothers and their partners: Prevalence and predictors.
        The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1997; 171: 550-555
        • Leahy-Warren P.
        • McCarthy G.
        Postnatal depression: Prevalence, mothers' perspectives, and treatments.
        Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2007; 21: 91-100
        • Logsdon M.
        • Birkimer J.
        • Barbee A.
        Social support providers for postpartum women.
        Journal of Social Behavior & Personality. 1997; 12: 89-102
        • Logsdon C.
        • Birkimer J.
        • Simpson T.
        • Looney S.
        Postpartum depression and social support.
        JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynaecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2005; 34: 46-54
        • Logsdon M.
        • Davis D.
        Paraprofessional support for pregnant & parenting women.
        MCN, American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing. 2004; 29: 92-97
        • Logsdon M.
        • Usui W.
        • Birkimer J.
        • McBride A.
        The postpartum questionnaire: Reliability and validity.
        Journal of Nursing Measurement. 1996; 4: 129-142
        • Martell L.
        Heading toward the new normal: A contemporary postpartum experience.
        JOGNN: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing. 2001; 30: 496-506
        • Martins C.
        • Gaffan E.
        Effects of early maternal depression on patterns of infant–mother attachment: A meta-analytic investigation.
        Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines. 2000; 41: 737-748
        • Martin M.
        A maternity hospital study of psychiatric illness associated with childbirth.
        Irish Journal of Medical Science. 1977; 146: 239-244
        • Matthey S.
        • Barnett B.
        • Judy U.
        • Waters B.
        Paternal and maternal depressed mood during the transition to parenthood.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2000; 60: 75-85
        • Mauthner N.
        Postnatal depression: The significance of social contacts between mothers.
        Women's Studies International Forum. 1995; 18: 311-323
        • MacArthur C.
        • Winter H.
        • Bick D.
        Effectiveness of postpartum support.
        Birth. 2007; 34: 188
        • MacArthur C.
        • Winter H.
        • Bick D.
        • Knowles H.
        • Lilford R.
        • Henderson C.
        • Lancashire R.
        • Braunholtz D.
        • Gee H.
        Effects of redesigned community postnatal care on women's health 4 months after birth: A cluster randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2002; 359: 378-385
        • Mercer R.
        Becoming a mother versus maternal role attainment.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2004; 36: 226-232
        • Misri S.
        • Kostaras X.
        • Fox D.
        • Kostaras D.
        The impact of partner support in the treatment of postpartum depression.
        Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2000; 45: 554-558
        • Morse C.
        • Durkin S.
        • Buist A.
        • Milgrom J.
        Improving the postnatal outcome of new mothers.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2004; 45: 465-474
        • Murray D.
        • Cooper P.E.
        Postpartum depression and child development.
        Guilford, New York1997
        • Muzik M.
        • Klier C.
        • Rosenblum K.
        • Holzinger A.
        • Umek W.
        • Katschnig H.
        Are commonly used self-report inventories suitable for screening postpartum depression and anxiety disorders.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000; 102: 71-73
        • Nelson A.M.
        Transition to motherhood.
        Journal of Obstetric Gynaecology Neonatal Nursing. 2003; 32: 465-477
        • Nelson D.
        • Hammen C.
        • Brennan P.
        • Ullman J.
        The impact of maternal depression on adolescent adjustment: The role of expressed emotion.
        Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2003; 71: 935-944
        • Nicolson P.
        Understanding postnatal depression: A mother-centred approach.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1990; 15: 689-695
        • Norbeck J.
        Social support.
        Annual Review of Nursing Research. 1988; 6: 85-109
        • O' Hara M.
        • Swain A.
        Rates and risk of postpartum depression—A meta-analysis.
        International Review of Psychiatry. 1996; 8: 37-54
        • O' Hara M.
        • Zekoski E.
        • Phillips L.
        • Wright E.
        Controlled prospective study of postpartum mood disorders: Comparison of childbearing and non childbearing women.
        Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1990; 99: 3-15
        • O'Neill T.
        • Murphy P.
        • Greene V.
        Postnatal-aetiological factors.
        Irish Medical Journal. 1990; 83: 17-18
        • Plews C.
        • Bryar R.
        • Closs J.
        Clients' perceptions of support received from health visitors during home visits.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2005; 14: 789-797
        • Pridham K.
        • Zavoral J.
        Help for mothers with infant care and household tasks: Perceptions of support and stress.
        Public Health Nursing. 1988; 5: 201-208
        • Reece S.
        Social support and the early maternal experience of primiparas over 35.
        Maternal and Child Journal. 1993; 21: 91-98
        • Righetti-Veltema M.
        • Conne-Pereard E.
        • Bousquet A.
        • Manzano J.
        Risk factors and predictive signs of postpartum depression.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 1998; 49: 167-180
        • Schachman K.A.
        • Lee R.K.
        • Lederma R.P.
        Baby boot camp: Facilitating maternal role adaptation among military wives.
        Nursing Research. 2004; 53: 107-115
        • Shaw E.
        • Levitt C.
        • Kaczorowsk I.
        • Wong S.
        Effectiveness of postpartum support.
        Birth. 2007; 34: 188-189
        • Shaw E.
        • Levitt C.
        • Wong S.
        • Kaczorowski J.
        • Group, T. M. U. P. R.
        Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: Effectiveness of postpartum support to improve maternal parenting, mental health, quality of life, and physical health.
        Birth. 2006; 33: 210-220
        • Stuart S.
        • Couser G.
        • Schilder K.
        • O'Hara M.
        • Gorman L.
        Postpartum anxiety and depression: Onset and comorbidity in a community sample.
        The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998; 186: 420-424
        • Surkan P.
        • Peterson K.
        • Hughes M.
        • Gottlieb B.
        The role of social networks and support in postpartum women's depression: A multiethnic urban sample.
        Journal Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2006; 10: 375-383https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-0056-9
        • Tammentie T.
        • Paavilainen E.
        • Astedt-Kurki P.
        • Tarkka M.
        Family dynamics of postnatally depressed mothers—Discrepancy between expectations and reality.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2004; 13: 65-74
        • Tarkka M.
        • Paunonen M.
        Social support provided by nurses to recent mothers on a maternity ward.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1996; 23: 1202-1206
        • Tarkka M.
        • Paunonen M.
        • Laippala P.
        Social support provided by public health nurses and the coping of first time mothers with childcare.
        Public Health Nursing. 1999; 16: 114-119
        • Ugarriza D.
        Postpartum depressed women's explanation of depression.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2002; 34: 227-233
        • Weiss M.
        • Ryan P.
        • Lokken L.
        • Nelson M.
        Length of stay after vaginal birth: Sociodemographic and readiness.
        Birth. 2004; 31: 93-101
        • Wilkins C.
        A qualitative study exploring the support needs of first-time mothers on their journey towards intuitive parenting.
        Midwifery. 2006; 22: 169-180