Examination of the relationship between smartphone addiction and cyberchondria in adolescents

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey 10. Yıl Caddesi Protokol Yolu No: 45 34010 Topkapı/İstanbul.
    Selmin Köse
    Footnotes
    1 Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey 10. Yıl Caddesi Protokol Yolu No: 45 34010 Topkapı/İstanbul.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Merve Murat
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Biruni University, Health Sciences Faculty, Department of Nursing, Yıl Caddesi Protokol Yolu No: 45 34010 Topkapı, İstanbul, Turkey.
    Affiliations
    Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey 10. Yıl Caddesi Protokol Yolu No: 45 34010 Topkapı/İstanbul.
Published:August 29, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2021.08.009

      Highlights

      • On the internet, health information can be searched anonymously and easily accessible, also can be inaccurate, contradictory, and misleading.
      • The more smartphone use is high, the more cyberchondria level may increases.
      • An interdisciplinary approach is recommended to manage smartphone addiction and cyberchondria best.

      Abstract

      In this descriptive and correlational study, it was aimed to examine the relationship between adolescents' smartphone addiction and cyberchondria. Data were obtained from 384 adolescent high school students in Istanbul between December 2020 and January 2021, using a Personal Information Form, the Smartphone Addiction Scale, and Cyberchondria Severity Scale. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the students. The adolescents' smartphone use duration was 3.67 ± 1.66 years. Almost all (97.9%) connected to the internet via smartphones and 39.3% spent 3–4 h per day on the internet. It was determined that 61.7% of them checked their phones as soon as they woke up in the morning and 75.3% of them before going to bed in the evening. For those whose smartphone use duration is high, their cyberchondria also increases. The authors suggest that nurses should understand smartphone addiction and cyberchondria to identify and apply nursing interventions when necessary in adolescents.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Akturk U.
        • Budak F.
        • Gultekin A.
        • Ozdemir A.
        Comparison of smartphone addiction and loneliness in high school and university students.
        Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2018; 54: 564-570
        • Aljomaa S.S.
        • Al. Qudah M.F.
        • Albursan I.S.
        • Bakhiet S.F.
        • Abduljabbar A.S.
        Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables.
        Computers in Human Behavior. 2016; 61: 155-164
        • Alpaslan A.H.
        • Koçak U.
        • Avci K.
        • Uzel Taş H.
        The association between internet addiction and disordered eating attitudes among Turkish high school students.
        Eating and Weight Disorders. 2015; 20: 441-448
        • Ayar D.
        • Bektas M.
        • Bektas I.
        • Akdeniz Kudubes A.
        • Selekoglu Ok Y.
        • Sal Altan S.
        • Celik I.
        The effect of adolescents' internet addiction on smartphone addiction.
        Journal of Addictions Nursing. 2017; 28: 210-214
        • Bajcar B.
        • Babiak J.
        Self-esteem and cyberchondria: the mediation effects of health anxiety and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in a community sample.
        Current Psychology. 2019; 2019
        • Barke A.
        • Bleichhardt G.
        • Rief W.
        • Doering B.K.
        The Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS): German validation and development of a short form.
        International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2016; 23: 595-605
        • Bati A.H.
        • Mandiracioglu A.
        • Govsa F.
        • Çam O.
        Health anxiety and cyberchondria among Ege University health science students.
        Nurse Education Today. 2018; 71: 169-173
        • Buctot D.B.
        • Kim N.
        • Kim S.H.
        The role of nomophobia and smartphone addiction in the lifestyle profiles of junior and senior high school students in the Philippines.
        Social Sciences & Humanities Open. 2020; 2: 100035
        • Cakir O.
        • Oguz E.
        The correlation between high school students' loneliness levels and smart phone addiction.
        Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education. 2017; 13: 418-429
        • Carbonell X.
        • Oberst U.
        • Beranuy M.
        The cell phone in the twenty-first century: A risk for addiction or a necessary tool?.
        in: Inc E. Principles of Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders. Academic Press, San Diego2013: 901-909
        • Cassidy-Bushrow A.E.
        • Johnson D.A.
        • Peters R.M.
        • Burmeister C.
        • Joseph C.L.
        Time spent on the internet and adolescent blood pressure.
        The Journal of School Nursing. 2015; 31: 374-384
        • Cha S.-S.
        • Seo B.-K.
        Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use.
        Health Psychology Open. 2018; 52055102918755046
        • Chen B.
        • Liu F.
        • Ding S.
        • Ying X.
        • Wang L.
        • Wen Y.
        Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: A cross-sectional study among medical college students.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2017; 17: 341
        • Chun J.
        Conceptualizing effective interventions for smartphone addiction among Korean female adolescents.
        Children and Youth Services Review. 2018; 84: 35-39
        • Demirci K.
        • Orhan H.
        • Demirdas A.
        • Akpinar A.
        • Sert H.
        Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the smartphone addiction scale in a younger population.
        Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2014; 24: 226-234
        • Dong H.
        • Yang F.
        • Lu X.
        • Hao W.
        Internet addiction and related psychological factors among children and adolescents in China during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.
        Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; 1100751
        • Eichenberg C.
        • Schott M.
        Use of web-based health services in individuals with and without symptoms of hypochondria: Survey study.
        Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2019; 21e10980
        • Ejder Apay S.
        • Gurol A.
        • Ozdemir S.
        • Uslu S.
        The reliability and validity of the cyberchondria severity scale for the Turkish Students.
        Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal. 2020; 49: 430-450
        • Faltýnková A.
        • Blinka L.
        • Ševčíková A.
        • Husarova D.
        The associations between family-related factors and excessive internet use in adolescents.
        International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 1754
        • Farooq A.
        • Laato S.
        • Islam A.K.M.N.
        Impact of online information on self-isolation intention during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cross-sectional study.
        Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020; 22e19128
        • Fergus T.A.
        • Dolan S.L.
        Problematic internet use and internet searches for medical information: The role of health anxiety.
        Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2014; 17: 761-765
        • Fergus T.A.
        • Russell L.H.
        Does cyberchondria overlap with health anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms? An examination of latent structure and scale interrelations.
        Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2016; 38: 88-94
        • Fergus T.A.
        • Spada M.M.
        Cyberchondria: Examining relations with problematic Internet use and metacognitive beliefs.
        Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 2017; 24: 1322-1330
        • Fischer-Grote L.
        • Kothgassner O.D.
        • Felnhofer A.
        Risk factors for problematic smartphone use in children and adolescents: A review of existing literature.
        Neuropsychiatrie. 2019; 33: 179-190
        • Haug S.
        • Castro R.P.
        • Kwon M.
        • Filler A.
        • Kowatsch T.
        • Schaub M.P.
        Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland.
        Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 2015; 4: 299-307
        • Kim S.G.
        • Park J.
        • Kim H.T.
        • Pan Z.
        • Lee Y.
        • McIntyre R.S.
        The relationship between smartphone addiction and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity in South Korean adolescents.
        Annals of General Psychiatry. 2019; 18: 1
        • Kwon M.
        • Lee J.Y.
        • Won W.Y.
        • Park J.W.
        • Min J.A.
        • Hahn C.
        • Kim D.J.
        Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS).
        PLoS One. 2013; 8e56936
        • Lee C.
        • Lee S.J.
        Prevalence and predictors of smartphone addiction proneness among Korean adolescents.
        Children and Youth Services Review. 2017; 77: 10-17
        • McElroy E.
        • Shevlin M.
        The development and initial validation of the cyberchondria severity scale (CSS).
        Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2014; 28: 259-265
        • McMullan R.D.
        • Berle D.
        • Arnáez S.
        • Starcevic V.
        The relationships between health anxiety, online health information seeking, and cyberchondria: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019; 245: 270-278
        • Murthy P.
        How will Covid-19 influence addictive behaviours and their management?.
        Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health. 2020; (Advance online publication): 1-3
        • OECDiLibrary
        Online activities.
        • Pearson C.
        • Hussain Z.
        Smartphone addiction and associated psychological factors.
        Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions. 2016; 3: 193-207
        • Roser M.
        • Ritchie H.
        • Ortiz-Ospina E.
        Internet.
        (Retrieved from)
        • Starcevic V.
        • Aboujaoude E.
        Cyberchondria, cyberbullying, cybersuicide, cybersex: "New" psychopathologies for the 21st century?.
        World Psychiatry. 2015; 14: 97-100
        • Starcevic V.
        • Baggio S.
        • Berle D.
        • Khazaal Y.
        • Viswasam K.
        Cyberchondria and its relationships with related constructs: A network analysis.
        The Psychiatric Quarterly. 2019; 90: 491-505
        • Starcevic V.
        • Berle D.
        Cyberchondria: Towards a better understanding of excessive health-related Internet use.
        Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 2013; 13: 205-213
        • Toh S.H.
        • Howie E.K.
        • Coenen P.
        • Straker L.M.
        “From the moment I wake up I will use it…every day, very hour”: A qualitative study on the patterns of adolescents’ mobile touch screen device use from adolescent and parent perspectives.
        BMC Pediatrics. 2019; 19: 30
        • Vismara M.
        • Caricasole V.
        • Starcevic V.
        • Cinosi E.
        • Dell’Osso B.
        • Martinotti G.
        • Fineberg N.A.
        Is cyberchondria a new transdiagnostic digital compulsive syndrome? A systematic review of the evidence.
        Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2020; 99: 152167
        • Wangler J.
        • Jansky M.
        General practitioners’ challenges and strategies in dealing with Internet-related health anxieties-results of a qualitative study among primary care physicians in Germany.
        Wien Med Wochenschr. 2020; 170: 329-339
        • West S.
        • Kornhaber R.
        • Visentin D.C.
        • Thapa D.K.
        • Cleary M.
        The role of the health professional supporting consumers who use “Dr Google”.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2020; 76: 2217-2219
        • Yildiz Durak H.
        Investigation of nomophobia and smartphone addiction predictors among adolescents in Turkey: Demographic variables and academic performance.
        The Social Science Journal. 2019; 56: 492-517
        • Zou Y.
        • Xia N.
        • Zou Y.
        • Chen Z.
        • Wen Y.
        Smartphone addiction may be associated with adolescent hypertension: A cross-sectional study among junior school students in China.
        BMC Pediatrics. 2019; 19: 310