Advertisement

Incidence and related influencing factors of workplace violence among psychiatric nurses in China: A systematic review and Meta-analysis

Published:April 25, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2022.04.005

      Highlights

      • Through meta-analysis, it is firstly concluded that the incidence of workplace violence among psychiatric nurses in China is 78%.
      • Furthermore, the elements of violent episodes are presented according to systematic studies, which further enhances nursing managers' grasp of risk variables. A more thorough reminder that nurse supervisors should track violent episodes by gender, working hours, marital status, and psychological nursing practices.

      Abstract

      Aim

      To analyze and integrate the incidence and its influencing factors on workplace violence among psychiatric nurses in China.

      Background

      Despite the fact that an increasing number of studies in China and elsewhere have focused on workplace violence among psychiatric nurses, there is presently no research to thoroughly explain the determining variables of violence faced by psychiatric nurses.

      Design

      A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted.

      Method

      PubMed, Embase, Cohrane Library, CNKI database, Wanfang database, and VIP database were used to search for English-language literature. The search deadline is June 15, 2021. The quality of the included literature was assessed, data was retrieved, and the meta-analysis was performed using Stata 16.0 software.

      Results

      A total of 19 works of literature, including 5926 patients, were included. Meta-analysis results showed that the incidence of workplace violence was about 78%[ES = 0.78, 95%CI(0.65,0.88)]. The possible factors for Chinese psychiatric nurses suffering from violence include gender, education, working years, whether they are an only child, age, height, working hours, and the form of employment.

      Conclusions

      The incidence of workplace violence incidence among psychiatric nurses in China is high, and managers should employ individualized intervention methods based on the variables that influence it.

      Implications for nursing management

      Managers should attach great importance to the occurrence of workplace violence. In training to prevent workplace violence, we should pay attention to the disparities in age and working abilities of nurses. Nurses should be trained in recognizing violent conduct, early warning indications, communication skills, and emergency response tactics. Managers should be able to schedule shifts in a flexible manner. Various techniques to enhance the nurse's working environment.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • AbuAlRub R.F.
        • Al Khawaldeh A.T.
        Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2014; 23: 1937-1947https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12473
        • Agar M.
        • Draper B.
        • Phillips P.A.
        • Phillips J.
        • Collier A.
        • Harlum J.
        • Currow D.
        Making decisions about delirium: A qualitative comparison of decision making between nurses working in palliative care, aged care, aged care psychiatry, and oncology.
        Palliative Medicine. 2012; 26https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216311419884
        • Alien D.E.
        Staying safe: Re-examining workplace violence in acute psychiatric settings.
        Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2013; 51: 37-41https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20130612-04
        • Cai J.Z.
        • Xi Y.Z.
        • Wang H.F.
        • Mao L.F.
        • Yu W.X.
        Prevalence of workplace violence encountered by clinical nurses in different level hospitals.
        Journal ofNursing Science. 2020; 35: 52-54https://doi.org/10.3870/j.issn.1001-4152.2020.01.052
        • Caruso R.
        • Antenora F.
        • Riba M.
        • Belvederi Murri M.
        • Biancosino B.
        • Zerbinati L.
        • Grassi L.
        Aggressive behavior and psychiatric inpatients: A narrative review of the literature with a focus on the European experience.
        Current Psychiatry Reports. 2021; 23: 29https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-021-01233-z
        • Chen B.C.
        • Zhao H.F.
        • Chen G.C.
        • Ren X.Q.
        A survey of the current situation of nurses suffering violent injuries in mental health care.
        International Journal of Nursing. 2017; 36: 29-31https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-4351.2017.01.008
        • Chen K.P.
        • Ku Y.C.
        • Yang H.F.
        Violence in the nursing workplace-a descriptive correlational study in a public hospital.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2013; 22: 798-805https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04251.x
        • Deng L.Z.
        • Huang J.W.
        • Cao S.J.
        • Zheng W.
        Prevalence study on the physical violence incident of psychiatry nurses suffering in working place.
        International Journal of Nursing. 2017; 36: 3210-3213https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-4351.2017.23.012
        • Feng N.
        Mental health survey and intervention research of psychiatric nurses in Shanxi mental health center in 2016.
        Preventive Medicine Tribune. 2017; 23: 113-136https://doi.org/10.16406/j.pmt.issn.1672-9153. 2017.02.017
        • Gao J.
        • Xu D.M.
        • Shao J.
        • An F.R.
        • Wang Y.
        • Cai Z.
        The mood analysis and psychological adjustment of psychiatric nurses suffered from workplace violence.
        Chinese Nursing Management. 2017; 17: 301-306https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1672-1756.2017.03.005
        • Gao Y.
        The effect of workplace violence on mental health of psychiatric nurses.
        International journal ofNursing. 2019; 38: 2546-2549https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-4351.2019.16.016
        • Geng S.X.
        • An R.
        • Wang H.J.
        The prevalence and risk factors of workplace violence against nurses in psychiatric department.
        Chinese Journal of Nursing. 2013; 48: 815-818https://doi.org/10.3761/j.issn.0254-1769.2013.09.016
        • Huang W.F.
        • Yu S.J.
        • Liu F.
        Analysis on the current situation and mood of psychiatric nurses suffering from workplace violence.
        Fujian Medical Journal. 2019; 41: 165-166
        • Jill D.
        • Nathan J.B.
        • James A.H.
        • S T.
        • Julia C.
        • Sean R.
        • D R.
        Security interventions are frequently undocumented in emergency department clinical notes.
        . 2019; 31 (Epub 2019 Mar 5): 797-804https://doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13257
        • Jin Q.X.
        • Zhang Y.H.
        • Lu W.J.
        Effect of workplace violence on nurses′job burnout in psychiatric department.
        ChineseEvidence-Based Nursing. 2018; 4: 1127-1131https://doi.org/10.12102/j.issn.2095-8668.2018.12.016
        • Le J.
        • Huang X.
        • Guan L.Y.
        • Zhou X.M.
        • Li Y.M.
        • Li Y.C.
        • Yang H.J.
        Current status of nursing personnel in psychiatry department suffering from violence incidents and analysis on its influential factors.
        . 2017; 14: 85-88https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1672-9676.2017.13.039
        • Li P.
        • Xing K.
        • Qiao H.
        • Fang H.Y.
        • Ma H.K.
        • Jiao M.I.
        • Liu M.
        Psychological violence against general practitioners and nurses in Chinese township hospitals: incidence and implications.
        Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2018; 16: 117https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0940-9
        • Liu J.
        • Gan Y.
        • Jiang H.
        • Li L.
        • Dwyer R.
        • Lu K.
        • Yan S.
        • Sampson O.
        • Xu H.
        • Wang C.
        • Zhu Y.
        • Chang Y.
        • Yang Y.
        • Yang T.
        • Chen Y.
        • Song F.
        • Lu Z.
        Prevalence of workplace violence against healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2019; 76: 927-937https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2019-105849
        • Liu J.
        • Hou A.Y.
        • Tian M.
        • Hu Z.Z.
        • Li K.Q.
        Contrast study of response capacity for violence against psychiatric between Hong Kong and Macao psychiatric nurses.
        Journal of Nurses Training. 2011; 26: 996-998https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-6975. 2011.11.017
        • Lu L.
        • Dong M.
        • Wang S.B.
        • Zhang L.
        • Ng C.H.
        • Ungvari G.S.
        • Li J.
        • Xiang Y.T.
        Prevalence of workplace violence against health-care professionals in China: A comprehensive meta-analysis of observational surveys.
        Trauma, Violence & Abuse. 2020; 21: 498-509https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018774429
        • Lu L.
        • Lok K.-I.
        • Zhang L.
        • Hu A.
        • Gabor S.U.
        • Daniel T.B.
        • Xiang
        • Tao Y.
        Prevalence of verbal and physical workplace violence against nurses in psychiatric hospitals in China.
        Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2019; 33: 68-72https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2019.07.002
        • Ma N.
        • Yan J.
        • Ma H.
        • Yu X.
        • Guo Y.
        Allocation of mental health facilities and psychiatric beds in China in 2010 [J].
        Chinese Mental Health Journal. 2012; 26: 885-889https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-6729.2012.12.002
        • Maubert A.
        • Hanon C.
        • Sedel F.
        Troubles psychiatriques dans la maladie de Niemann-Pick de type C chez l'adulte [Psychiatric disorders in adult form of Niemann-Pick disease type C].
        Encephale. 2016; 42: 208-213https://doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2015.11.003
        • Moher D.
        • Liberati A.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Altman D.G.
        • The PRISMA Group
        Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement.
        British Medical Journal. 2009; 339b2535https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2535
        • Monroe C.
        • Loresto F.
        • Horton-Deutsch S.
        • Kleiner C.
        • Eron K.
        • Varney R.
        • Grimm S.
        The value of intentional self-care practices: The effects of mindfulness on improving job satisfaction, teamwork, and workplace environments.
        Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2021; 35: 189-194https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2020.10.003
        • Nasib B.
        • Azad R.
        • Marziyeh A.
        • Ali-Reza M.
        • Vahid Z.
        • Abbass D.
        Determine and compare the viewpoints of nurses, patients and their relatives to workplace violence against nurses.
        Journal of Nursing Management. 2018; 26 (Epub 2018 Mar 23): 563-570https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12583
        • Pang X.L.
        Characteristics and prevention of workplace violence suffered by psychiatric nursing staff.
        China Health Industry. 2012; 16: 46https://doi.org/10.16659/j.cnki.1672-5654.2012.16.063
        • Qian Y.P.
        • Wu Y.P.
        • Zhao Z.J.
        Investigation and coping strategies on the prevalence of violent aggression which subjected in psychiatric nurses.
        International Journal of Nursing. 2013; 32: 150-152https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-4351.2013.01.082
        • Raeda F.A.
        • Abdullah T.A.K.
        Workplace physical violence among hospital nurses and physicians in underserved areas in Jordan.
        . 2014; 23 (Epub 2013 Dec 20): 1937-1947https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12473
        • Shea T.
        • Sheehan C.
        • Donohue R.
        • Cooper B.
        • DeCieri H.
        Occupational violence and aggression experienced by nursing and caring professionals.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2017; 49: 236-243https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12272
        • Su W.J.
        Investigation on the current situation of psychiatric clinical nurses suffering from violence and protective measures.
        Today Nurse. 2015; 3 (CNKI:SUN:DDHZ.0.2015-03-015): 29-31
        • Sun L.J.
        Investigation on the physical violence among nursing staff in psychiatric department.
        Journal of Nursing Administration. 2008; 8: 12-14https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-315X.2008.07.005
        • Tang X.F.
        • Zhu J.
        • Wang X.X.
        • Liu Q.
        Investigation on workplace violence among nurses in PICU.
        Journal of QiluNursing. 2019; 25: 71-74https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1006-7256.2019.21.024
        • Tsukamoto S.
        • Galdino M.
        • Barreto M.
        • Martins J.T.
        Burnout syndrome and workplace violence among nursing staff: a cross-sectional study.
        Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 2022; 140: 101-107https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2021.0068.R1.31052021
        • Yang B.X.
        • Teresa E.S.
        • Marcia A.P.
        • Diana L.M.
        Incidence, type, related factors, and effect of workplace violence on mental health nurses: A cross-sectional survey.
        . 2017; 32: 31-38https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu. 2017.09.013
        • Yang T.
        • Ma M.
        • Guo Y.
        • Li Y.
        • Tian H.
        • Liu Y.
        • Chen Q.
        • Zhang S.
        • Deng J.
        Do job stress, health, and presenteeism differ between Chinese healthcare workers in public and private hospitals: A cross sectional study.
        Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2020; 25: 653-665https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2019.1668564
        • Yao X.Y.
        • Shao J.
        • Wang L.
        • Zhang J.
        • Zhang C.
        • Lin Y.J.
        Does workplace violence, empathy, and communication influence occupational stress among mental health nurses?.
        International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2021; 30: 177-188https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12770
        • Ye L.
        • Yu X.F.
        • Zhou X.J.
        Analysis and control of negative emotion in psychiatric nurses.
        Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Management. 2017; 25: 96-97https://doi.org/10.16690/j.cnki.1007-9203.2017.03.043
        • Zhang B.F.
        Prevalence and correlation of workplace violence and emotional intelligence among psychiatric nurses.
        Chinese Nursing Research. 2019; 33: 1897-1901https://doi.org/10.12102/j.issn.1009-6493. 2019.11.017
        • Zhang Y.H.
        • Qian R.L.
        • Lu W.Y.
        • Jin Q.X.
        • Liu S.J.
        The effect of workplace violence on nurses' mental health in psychiatric department.
        Chinese Nursing Management. 2017; 17: 1640-1643https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1672-1756.2017.12.014
        • Zou G.Y.
        • Lu Q.H.
        • Teng W.Y.
        Analysis of risk factors of psychiatric nurses suffering from violent injury.
        Chinese Nursing Research. 2017; 31: 4249-4251https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1009-6493.2017.33.019