Advertisement

Perceived ethnic discrimination and job satisfaction amongst mental health nurses of color in Venezuela

      Highlights

      • Mental health nurses of color in Venezuela present low levels of job satisfaction.
      • Lower satisfaction levels at work are correlated with higher levels of perceived ethnic discrimination.
      • Policymakers in Venezuela must consider ways to protect mental health nurses of color from suffering ethnic discrimination.

      Abstract

      Venezuela's social and economic crisis of the past eight years has had an impact on healthcare services. However, because Venezuela has traditionally been thought to be a country with low levels of racism, it has been assumed that mental health nurses' satisfaction is the same across ethnic groups. The present study tests that hypothesis. Results come out showing that, as compared to whites, mental health nurses of color in Venezuela have lower levels of job satisfaction, and higher levels of perceived ethnic discrimination. Results also show that amongst mental health nurses of color in Venezuela, perceived ethnic discrimination and job satisfaction are negatively correlated.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Adams A.
        • Bond S.
        Hospital nurses' job satisfaction, individual and organizational characteristics.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2000; 32: 536-543https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01513.x
        • Alavi H.R.
        • Askaripur M.R.
        The relationship between self-esteem and job satisfaction of personnel in government organizations.
        Public Personnel Management. 2003; 32: 591-600
        • Andrews G.R.
        Afro-Latin America by the numbers.
        ReVista (Cambridge). 2018; 17: 38-40
        • Angosto-Ferrández L.F.
        From ‘café con leche’to ‘o café, o leche’: National Identity, mestizaje and census politics in contemporary Venezuela.
        Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research. 2014; 20: 373-398https://doi.org/10.1080/13260219.2014.995876
        • Atkins R.
        Instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination: Review and critique of factor analytic techniques.
        International Journal of Health Services. 2014; 44: 711-734https://doi.org/10.2190/HS.44.4.c
        • Bello R.J.
        • Damas J.J.
        • Marco F.J.
        • Castro J.S.
        Venezuela's health-care crisis.
        The Lancet. 2017; 390: 551https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31831-7
        • Bonilla-Silva E.
        Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States.
        Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006
        • Brondolo E.
        • Kelly K.P.
        • Coakley V.
        • Gordon T.
        • Thompson S.
        • Levy E.
        • Contrada R.J.
        The perceived ethnic discrimination questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation of a community version 1.
        Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2005; 35: 335-365https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02124.x
        • Broudy R.
        • Brondolo E.
        • Coakley V.
        • Brady N.
        • Cassells A.
        • Tobin J.N.
        • Sweeney M.
        Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to daily moods and negative social interactions.
        Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2007; 30: 31-43https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-006-9081-4
        • Ensher E.A.
        • Grant-Vallone E.J.
        • Donaldson S.I.
        Effects of perceived discrimination on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and grievances.
        Human Resource Development Quarterly. 2001; 12: 53-72https://doi.org/10.1002/1532-1096(200101/02)12:1<53::AID-HRDQ5>3.0.CO;2-G
        • Fernando S.
        Racism as a cause of depression.
        International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 1984; 30: 41-49
        • Fox S.
        • Stallworth L.E.
        Racial/ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workplace.
        Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2005; 66: 438-456https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.01.002
        • González J.M.
        Indian City: To be urban and Indian in Venezuela; assimilation or cultural reaffirmation?.
        Abya Yala News. 1997; 10: 21
        • Gottlieb L.
        • Fichtenberg C.
        • Alderwick H.
        • Adler N.
        Social determinants of health: What'sa healthcare system to do?.
        Journal of Healthcare Management. 2019; 64: 243-257https://doi.org/10.1097/JHM-D-18-00160
        • Grillet M.E.
        • Hernández-Villena J.V.
        • Llewellyn M.S.
        • Paniz-Mondolfi A.E.
        • Tami A.
        • Vincenti-Gonzalez M.F.
        • Alarcón-de Noya B.
        Venezuela's humanitarian crisis, resurgence of vector-borne diseases, and implications for spillover in the region.
        The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2019; 19: e149-e161https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30757-6
        • Gulbas L.E.
        Embodying racism: Race, rhinoplasty, and self-esteem in Venezuela.
        Qualitative Health Research. 2013; 23: 326-335https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732312468335
        • Gurková E.
        • Soósová M.S.
        • Haroková S.
        • Žiaková K.
        • Šerfelová R.
        • Zamboriová M.
        Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of Slovak and Czech nurses.
        International Nursing Review. 2013; 60: 112-121https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-7657.2012.01030.x
        • Hall K.
        Differences of perspective: An examination of racism and ethnic minorities in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
        Glendon Journal of International Studies/Revue d'études internationales de Glendon. 2009; 14: 2
        • Haslanger S.
        Racism, ideology, and social movements.
        Res Philosophica. 2017; 94: 1-22https://doi.org/10.11612/resphil.1547
        • Hayes B.
        • Bonner A.N.N.
        • Pryor J.
        Factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting: A review of recent literature.
        Journal of Nursing Management. 2010; 18: 804-814https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01131.x
        • Hernández D.P.
        • Valdehita S.R.
        Prevalencia del Síndrome de Burnout en médicos residentes venezolanos y su relación con el contexto de crisis sanitaria en Venezuela.
        Medicina Interna. 2020; 36: 80-90
        • Kao G.
        Group images and possible selves among adolescents: Linking stereotypes to expectations by race and ethnicity.
        in: Sociological forum. Vol. 15. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 2000: 407-430https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007572209544 (No. 3)
        • Kavanaugh J.
        • Duffy J.A.
        • Lilly J.
        The relationship between job satisfaction and demographic variables for healthcare professionals.
        Management Research News. 2006; 28: 7https://doi.org/10.1108/01409170610683842
        • Keshet Y.
        • Popper-Giveon A.
        Race-based experiences of ethnic minority health professionals: Arab physicians and nurses in Israeli public healthcare organizations.
        Ethnicity & Health. 2018; 23: 442-459https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2017.1280131
        • Kouta C.
        • Kaite C.P.
        Gender discrimination and nursing: α literature review.
        Journal of Professional Nursing. 2011; 27: 59-63https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2010.10.006
        • Kwok J.
        • Atencio J.
        • Ullah J.
        • Crupi R.
        • Chen D.
        • Roth A.R.
        • Brondolo E.
        ThePerceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire—Community Version: Validation in a multiethnic Asian sample.
        Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 2011; 17: 271https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024034
        • Lee G.
        • Magnini V.P.
        • Kim B.P.
        Employee satisfaction with schedule flexibility: Psychological antecedents and consequences within the workplace.
        International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2011; 30: 22-30https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.03.013
        • Low K.D.
        • Radhakrishnan P.
        • Schneider K.T.
        • Rounds J.
        The experiences of bystanders of workplace ethnic harassment.
        Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2007; 37: 2261-2297https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00258.x
        • Magee W.
        • Umamaheswar J.
        Immigrant group differences in job satisfaction.
        Race and Social Problems. 2011; 3: 252-265https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-011-9057-z
        • Miller G.V.F.
        • Travers C.J.
        Ethnicity and the experience of work: Job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.
        International Review of Psychiatry. 2005; 17: 317-327https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260500238470
        • Moceri J.T.
        Bias in the nursing workplace: Implications for Latino (a) nurses.
        Journal of Cultural Diversity. 2012; 19
        • Mueller C.W.
        • McCloskey J.C.
        Nurses' job satisfaction: A proposed measure.
        Nursing Research. 1990; 39: 113-117https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199003000-00014
        • Ochoa M.
        Queen for a day: Transformistas, beauty queens, and the performance of femininity in Venezuela.
        Duke University Press, New York2014
        • Prosen M.
        • Piskar F.
        Job satisfaction of Slovenian hospital nursing workforce.
        Journal of Nursing Management. 2015; 23: 242-251https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12121
        • Ramírez C.V.
        Active marooning: Confronting Mi Negra and the Bolivarian revolution.
        Radical History Review. 2009; 2009: 117-130https://doi.org/10.1215/01636545-2008-034
        • Rivas Brito D.
        • Ruette-Orihuela K.
        The ‘multicultural invisibility’of Afro-Venezuelans and their alternative legal politics to fight racial discrimination and acquire ethnoracial recognition: The legal case against Cine Citta.
        Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies. 2019; 14: 253-269https://doi.org/10.1080/17442222.2019.1673935
        • Salas J.M.H.
        Ethnicity and revolution: The political economy of racism in Venezuela.
        Latin American Perspectives. 2005; 32: 72-91https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X04273869
        • Steyn R.
        • Vawda N.
        Job characteristics: Their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression.
        Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2014; 24: 281-284https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2014.906076
        • Telles E.
        • Paschel T.
        Who is black, white, or mixed race? How skin color, status, and nation shape racial classification in Latin America.
        American Journal of Sociology. 2014; 120: 864-907https://doi.org/10.1086/679252
        • Topaz M.
        • Ronquillo C.
        • Peltonen L.M.
        • Pruinelli L.
        • Sarmiento R.F.
        • Badger M.K.
        • Lee Y.L.
        Nurse informaticians report low satisfaction and multi-level concerns with electronic health records: results from an international survey.
        (American Medical Informatics Association)in: AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 2016. 2016 (DOI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333337/)
        • Tuttas C.A.
        Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: A literature review.
        Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 2015; 26: 514-520https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659614526757
        • Van Saane N.
        • Sluiter J.K.
        • Verbeek J.H.A.M.
        • Frings-Dresen M.H.W.
        Reliability and validity of instruments measuring job satisfaction—A systematic review.
        Occupational Medicine. 2003; 53: 191-200https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqg038
        • Wright W.R.
        Café con leche: Race, class, and national image in Venezuela.
        University of Texas Press, 2013
        • Wynter C.
        What's behind Venezuela's healthcare crisis?.
        Green Left Weekly. 2017; 1154 (https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/INFORMIT.133162603617818): 20
        • Yang H.C.
        • Ju Y.H.
        • Lee Y.C.
        Effects of job stress on self-esteem, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.
        Journal of Transnational Management. 2016; 21: 29-39https://doi.org/10.1080/15475778.2016.1120613
        • Zangaro G.A.
        • Soeken K.L.
        A meta-analysis of studies of nurses' job satisfaction.
        Research in Nursing & Health. 2007; 30: 445-458https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20202
        • Zerbinos E.
        • Clanton G.A.
        Minority practitioners: Career influences, job satisfaction, and discrimination.
        Public Relations Review. 1993; 19: 75-91https://doi.org/10.1016/0363-8111(93)90031-7