- •Diversity is missing in genetic studies aimed at preventing and treating psychiatric disorders.
- •Lack of engagement in research by diverse populations exacerbates mental health disparities.
- •Beliefs about participation in genetic research impact willingness to participate.
- •Marginalized sub-groups of mothers encounter barriers that intersect and impact participation.
- •Theoretically based inquiries can inform intervention strategies to enhance participation.
To identify mothers' salient normative, behavioral and control beliefs and willingness towards participating in genetic salivary testing for depression.
A qualitative, descriptive design was employed. 41 multi-ethnic mothers completed surveys that underwent directed content analysis according to The Theory of Planned Behavior. Percentages and frequency counts were used to categorize responses and calculate willingness.
Salient beliefs included: Behavioral: Finding a cure/treatment for depression (29.3 %), Normative: Family would approve (46.3 %), and Church associates would disapprove (19.5 %). Control: Lacking information/explanations (34.1 %) as barriers, convenient locations (24.4 %) as facilitators. Most mothers indicated a willingness to participate (90.2 %).
Interventions should target families, emphasize benefits, explain purposes and procedures, and use community based participatory methods.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- The theory of planned behavior.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991; 50: 179-211https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
- Theory of planned behavior.https://people.umass.edu/aizen/tpb.htmlDate: 2014
- The theory of planned behavior: A bibliography.
- Eliciting salient beliefs about physical activity among female adolescent in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study.World Journal of Public Health. 2017; 2: 116https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjph.20170203.15
- The influence of health care policies and health care system distrust on willingness to undergo genetic testing.Medical Care. 2012; 50: 381-387https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e31824d748b
- Hypertension and subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis in blacks and whites. The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Aric investigators.Archives of Internal Medicine. 1996; 156: 1983-1989
- Beyond health care: The role of social determinants in promoting health and health equity. KFF.https://www.kff.org/racial-equity-and-health-policy/issue-brief/beyond-health-care-the-role-of-social-determinants-in-promoting-health-and-health-equity/Date: 2018
- Depression in black single mothers: A test of a theoretical model.Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2015; 37: 812-830https://doi.org/10.1177/0193945914528289
- Self-efficacy and the promotion of health for depressed single mothers.Mental healthFamily Medicine. 2010; 7 (PubMed): 155-168
- Coping with depression in single black mothers.Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2016; 37: 172-181https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2015.1098760
- Outcomes of depression in black single mothers.Clinical Nursing Research. 2017; 26: 464-483https://doi.org/10.1177/1054773816633440
- Characterizing race/ethnicity and genetic ancestry for 100,000 subjects in the genetic epidemiology research on adult health and aging (gera) cohort.Genetics. 2015; 200: 1285-1295https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178616
- Depression, clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects.Harper & Row, 1967
- Prisoners of hate: The cognitive bases of anger, hostility, and violence.Harper Collins, 1999
- Supporting the mental health of mothers raising children in poverty.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2008; 1136: 86-100https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1425.008
- Diversity and inclusion in genomic research: Why the uneven progress?.Journal of Community Genetics. 2017; 8: 255-266https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-017-0316-6
- Multiple roles, multiple lives: The protective effects of role responsibilities on the health functioning of African American mothers.Women & Health. 2009; 49: 144-163https://doi.org/10.1080/03630240902915051
- Factors that influence the acceptability of collecting in-home finger stick blood samples in an urban, low-income population.Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2007; 18: 100-115https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2007.0004
- Protecting human research subjects: The past defines the future.The Ochsner Journal. 2006; 6: 15-20https://doi.org/10.1043/1524-5012(2006)006[0015:PHRSTP]2.0.CO;2
- Prevalence of depression among adults aged 20 and over: United states, 2013-2016.NCHS Data Brief. 2018; 303 (PMID: 29638213): 1-8
- Maternal depressive symptoms and healthcare expenditures for publicly insured children with chronic health conditions.Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2015; 19: 790-797https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1570-4
- Stressors and coping strategies used by single mothers living in poverty.Affilia. 2012; 27: 190-204https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109912443884
- Church-based health promotion interventions: Evidence and lessons learned.Annual Review of Public Health. 2007; 28: 213-234https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144016
- The stigma of depression: Black american experiences.Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work: Innovation in Theory, Research & Practice. 2016; 25: 253-269https://doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2016.1187101
- Spirituality among latinas/os implications of culture in conceptualization and measurement.Advances in Nursing Science. 2006; 29: 69-81
- Latino beliefs about biomedical research participation: A qualitative study on the us-Mexico border.Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. 2014; 9: 10-21https://doi.org/10.1177/1556264614544454
- Tuskegee Study—Timeline—CDC - NCHHSTP.
- Prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms in low-income Hispanic women.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2005; 66: 418-423https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v66n0402
- Increasing participation in genomic research and biobanking through community-based capacity building.Journal of Genetic Counseling. 2015; 24: 491-502https://doi.org/10.1007/s10897-014-9768-6
- Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060. 13.
- Guidance regarding methods for de-identification of protected health information in accordance with the health insurance portability and accountability act (hipaa) privacy rule [Text]. HHS.Gov.https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/privacy/special-topics/de-identification/index.htmlDate: 2012
- Preventive intervention in families of depressed parents: A family cognitive-behavioral intervention.in: Depression in adolescent girls: Science and prevention. The Guilford Press, 2011: 318-339
- Low-level symptoms of depression in mothers of young children are associated with behavior problems in middle childhood.Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2016; 20: 516-524https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1849-0
- Comparison of methods for collection of dna samples by mail in the black women’s health study.Annals of Epidemiology. 2004; 14: 117-122https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(03)00132-7
- Qualitative inquiry & research design.Sage, 2013
- A longitudinal study of Latino and non-Hispanic mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and its association with parent-child communication.Journal of Affective Disorders. 2018; 227: 580-587https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.10.046
- Perceived and personal mental health stigma in Latino and African American college students.Frontiers in Public Health. 2018; 6: 49https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00049
- 2020 federal poverty guidelines/federal poverty levels.
- Needs, priorities, and recommendations for engaging underrepresented populations in clinical research: A community perspective.Journal of Community Health. 2017; 42: 472-480https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-016-0279-2
- Children of low-income depressed mothers: Psychiatric disorders and social adjustment.Depression and Anxiety. 2009; 26: 513-520https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20522
- The role of race and ethnicity in views toward and participation in genetic studies and precision medicine research in the United States: A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine. 2020; 8e1099https://doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1099
- Participants|Framingham heart study.
- Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour: A manual for health services researchers. Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources; Centre for Health Services Research.https://abdn.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/constructing-questionnaires-based-on-the-theory-of-planned-behaviDate: 2004
- Impact of population and laboratory methods on DNA yield and variability.
- Dna genotek—Dna saliva collection—Research—Oragene ogr-500.https://www.dnagenotek.com/US/products/collection-human/oragene-discover/500-series/OGR-500.htmlDate: 2019
- A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to minority research participation among african americans, latinos, asian americans, and pacific islanders.American Journal of Public Health. 2014; 104: e16-e31https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301706
- Making an impact with service learning.Nursing. 2015; 45: 21-24https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000473146.91433.84
- A simple method of genomic dna extraction from human samples for pcr-rflp analysis.Journal of Biomolecular Techniques. 2013; 24: 224-231https://doi.org/10.7171/jbt.13-2404-001
- Aid to dependent children: The legal history. Social Welfare History Project.https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/public-welfare/aid-to-dependent-children-the-legal-history/Date: 2011
- Immigrant Asian Indian women and postpartum depression.Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing. 2006; 35: 98-104https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00007.x
- Gwas central—Studies.https://www.gwascentral.org/studies?q=depressive+symptoms&t=ZERO&m=all&l=all&r%5B%5D=&page=1&o=2&page_size=20&formatDate: 2021
- (3)Predictors of depression for low-income African American single mothers. 2. 2008: 20
- Mental health and mental disorders | healthy people 2020.https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/mental-health-and-mental-disordersDate: 2020
- Mental health and mental disorders—Healthy people 2030 | health.gov.https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/mental-health-and-mental-disordersDate: 2020
- Prioritizing diversity in human genomics research.Nature Reviews Genetics. 2018; 19: 175-185https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg.2017.89
- Three approaches to qualitative content analysis.Qualitative Health Research. 2005; 15: 1277-1288https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305276687
- Evaluation of the human genomic dna extraction from hair root method.in: IFMBE proceedings. 40. 2013: 190-194https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32183-2_49
- Depression, sociocultural factors, and African American women.Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 2009; 37: 83-93https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2009.tb00093.x
- Identification of 15 genetic loci associated with risk of major depression in individuals of European descent.Nature Genetics. 2016; 48: 1031-1036https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3623
- Stigma and depression treatment utilization among Latinos: Utility of four stigma measures.Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.). 2010; 61: 373-379https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2010.61.4.373
- Best practices for partnering with ethnic minority-serving religious organizations on health promotion and prevention.AMA Journal of Ethics. 2018; 20: E643-E654https://doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2018.643
- Distinguishing subclinical (subthreshold) depression from the residual symptoms of major depression.Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2012; 24: 288-289https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-0829.2012.05.007
- Beliefs about e-cigarettes: A focus group study with college students.American Journal of Health Behavior. 2019; 43: 76-87https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.43.1.7
- Willingness to participate in cancer screenings: Blacks vs Whites vs Puerto Rican Hispanics.Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center. 2008; 15: 334-343https://doi.org/10.1177/107327480801500408
- Validation of the theory of planned behavior an intervention for treat depression behavior.Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior. 2018; 7: 1-7
- Beliefs and attitudes towards participating in genetic research—A population based cross-sectional study.BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 114https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-114
- Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of Latino community members regarding BRCA1/2 mutation testing and preventive strategies.Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2010; 12: 105-115https://doi.org/10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181c9af2d
- Racial and ethnic disparities in research studies: The challenge of creating more diverse cohorts.Environmental Health Perspectives. 2015; 123: A297-A302https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A297
- Genetic testing in psychiatry: A review of attitudes and beliefs.Psychiatry. 2011; 74: 315-331https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.2011.74.4.315
- Exploring Asian Indian and pakistani views about cancer and participation in cancer genetics research: Toward the development of a community genetics intervention.Journal of Community Genetics. 2018; 9: 27-35https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-017-0312-x
- Sex as an important biological variable in biomedical research.BMB Reports. 2018; 51: 167-173https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2018.51.4.034
- Asian Americans are less willing than other racial groups to participate in health research.Journal of Clinical and Translational Science. 2019; 3: 90-96https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2019.372
- Efficacy of an internet-based depression intervention to improve rates of treatment in adolescent mothers.Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2018; 21: 273-285https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-017-0804-z
- Intention to seek mental health treatment for adolescent girls: Comparison of predictors in mothers and daughters.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing : Official Publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc. 2013; 26: 239-245https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12039
- Attitudes and beliefs of African-Americans toward genetics, genetic testing, and sickle cell disease education and awareness.Journal of Genetic Counseling. 2011; 20: 572-592https://doi.org/10.1007/s10897-011-9388-3
- Gene-environment interaction in major depression: Focus on experience-dependent biological systems.Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2015; 6: 68https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00068
- Hopelessness, family stress, and depression among Mexican-heritage mothers in the southwest.Health & Social Work. 2011; 36: 7-18
- Gender, family, and community correlates of mental health in South Asian Americans.Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology. 2009; 15: 265-274https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014301
- Depression in low-income mothers of young children: Are they getting the treatment they need? 16.https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/23546/412804-Depression-in-Low-Income-Mothers-of-Young-Children-Are-They-Getting-the-Treatment-They-Need-.PDFDate: 2013
- Participatory action research.Sage, 2008
- Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: Its potential impact on understanding health disparities.Human Genomics. 2015; 9: 1https://doi.org/10.1186/s40246-014-0023-x
- Beliefs underlying eating better and moving more: Lessons learned from comparative salient belief elicitations with adults and youths.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2012; 640: 81-100https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716211425015
- A scientometric review of genome-wide association studies.Communications Biology. 2019; 2: 9https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0261-x
- Minkler M. Wallerstein N. Community-based participatory research for health: From process to outcomes. (2nd edition). Jossey-Bass, 2008
- Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model.in: Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. 5th ed. Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2015: 95-124
- An exploration of attitudes among Black Americans towards psychiatric genetic research.Psychiatry. 2009; 72: 177-194https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.2009.72.2.177
- Conservation, acquisition, and functional impact of sex-biased gene expression in mammals.Science (New York, N.Y.). 2019; 365eaaw7317https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw7317
- African Americans|nami: National alliance on mental illness.
- The cardiovascular health study.https://chs-nhlbi.org/Date: 2020
- Namhc genomics workgroup: Research recommendations summary. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/advisory-boards-and-groups/namhc/reports/namhc-genomics-workgroup-research-recommendations-summaryDate: 2017
- Major depression.
- What is the precision medicine initiative?: Medlineplus genetics.
National Institutes of Health, n.d.National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Office of research on women’s health: Advancing the health of women through science. Retrieved November 23, 2020, from https://orwh.od.nih.gov/.
- The nurses’ health study and nurses’ health study ii are among the largest investigations into the risk factors for major chronic diseases in women.https://www.nurseshealthstudy.org/Date: 2016
- 2019 federal poverty level information—2019 fpl. Obamacare.Net.
- Qualitative research & evaluation methods.Sage, 2015
- Negative thinking and the mental health of low-income single mothers.Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2004; 36: 337-344https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04061.x
- Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and children's emotional problems at the age of 2 and 5 years: A longitudinal study.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 2020; 61: 195-204https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13126
- Genomics is failing on diversity.Nature. 2016; 538: 161-164https://doi.org/10.1038/538161a
- 1. 1977: 385-401https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306 (3) The ces-d scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.
- Social stigma, cultural constraints, or poor policies: Examining the pakistani muslim female population in the united states and unequal access to professional mental health services. 22.
- Rationale, design, and methodology of the Women’s Genome Health Study: A genome-wide association study of more than 25,000 initially healthy American women.Clinical Chemistry. 2008; 54: 249-255https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2007.099366
- 2012: 9 Low-income working families: The growing economic gap.
- Is community-based participatory research (cbpr) useful? A systematic review on papers in a decade.International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2012; 3: 386-393
- Willingness to participate in genomics research and desire for personal results among underrepresented minority patients: A structured interview study.Journal of Community Genetics. 2013; 4: 469-482https://doi.org/10.1007/s12687-013-0154-0
- The need to build trust: A perspective on disparities in genetic testing.Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers. 2013; 17: 647-648https://doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2013.1548
- Acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among african american women living in the Mississippi Delta.Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. 2013; 23: e123-e130https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2012.12.003
- More than Tuskegee: Understanding mistrust about research participation.Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2010; 21: 879-897https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0323
- Racial and ethnic variations in knowledge and attitudes about genetic testing.Genetic Testing. 2004; 8: 31-43https://doi.org/10.1089/109065704323016012
- The missing diversity in human genetic studies.Cell. 2019; 177: 26-31https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.02.048
- Factors influencing breast cancer genetic testing among high risk African American women: A systematic review.Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2019; https://doi.org/10.46743/1540-580x/2019.1789
- Attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing and research: A comparative study between Denmark and Cuba.Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers. 2019; 23: 857-864https://doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2019.0163
- The spatial concentration of America's rural poor population: A postrecession update.Rural Sociology. 2018; 83: 109-144https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12166
- Genetic heterogeneity in self-reported depressive symptoms identified through genetic analyses of the PHQ-9.Psychological Medicine. 2020; 50: 2385-2396https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719002526
- Eliciting general practitioners' salient beliefs towards prescribing: A qualitative study based on the theory of planned behaviour in Greece.Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2013; 38: 109-114https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12037
- Awareness, perceptions, and provider recommendation related to genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer risk among at-risk Hispanic women: Similarities and variations by sub-ethnicity.Journal of Genetic Counseling. 2010; 19: 618-629https://doi.org/10.1007/s10897-010-9316-y
- Family culture in mental health help-seeking and utilization in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States: The nlaas.The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2014; 84: 353-363https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099844
- African american men and women’s attitude toward mental illness, perceptions of stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.Nursing Research. 2013; 62: 185-194https://doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0b013e31827bf533
- Trends in depression prevalence in the USA from 2005 to 2015: Widening disparities in vulnerable groups.Psychological Medicine. 2018; 48: 1308-1315https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717002781
- Public interest in predictive genetic testing, including direct-to-consumer testing, for susceptibility to major depression: Preliminary findings.European Journal of Human Genetics. 2010; 18: 47-51https://doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2009.138
- Mixed methods: Integrating quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis while studying patient-centered medical home models|pcmh resource center.https://pcmh.ahrq.gov/page/mixed-methods-integrating-quantitative-and-qualitative-data-collection-and-analysis-whileDate: 2013
- Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.Nature Genetics. 2018; 50: 668-681https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0090-3
- Mortality in the United States, 2018.NCHS Data Brief. 2020; 355: 1-8
Published online: July 17, 2022
Accepted: July 3, 2022
Received in revised form: June 3, 2022
Received: August 30, 2020
© 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.