- •Attitudes toward cyber-counseling in Generation Z in China were examined.
- •Attitude toward psychological help impacted attitude toward cyber-counseling.
- •Attitude toward the Internet and perceived behavioral control were significant.
Hypothesis 1: AI has a significant positive effect on AUC.
Hypothesis 2: PBC has a significant positive effect on AUC.
Hypothesis 3: APH has a significant positive effect on AUC.
Hypothesis 4: CU has a significant positive effect on AI.
Hypothesis 5: CS has a significant positive effect on PBC.
Hypothesis 6: SS has a significant negative effect on APH.
|Subscale||Reliability (α)||Adaptations||Sample items||References|
|AUC||0.685||“Online counseling” was adapted to “cyber-counseling”||Using cyber-counseling helps me learn about myself.||(|
Rochlen et al., 2004)
|AI||0.787||Original items were retained||The use of the Internet has improved our living standard.||(|
Sam et al., 2005)
|CS||0.865||Original items were retained||I have the confidence to use computers to organize information.||(|
Torkzadeh and Koufteros, 1994)
|PBC||0.769||“Mental health service” was|
adapted to “cyber-counseling”
|I can use cyber-counseling if I like.||(|
Mo and Mak, 2009)
|APH||0.602||Original items were retained||If I am anxious or depressed for a long time, I want to get psychological help.||(|
Zhang and Dixon, 2003)
|SS||0.767||Original items were retained||Seeking professional psychological help would make me feel like I'm not smart enough.||(|
Pinto et al., 2015)
|CU||0.787||Original items retained||I use computers to deal with many things in my daily life.||(|
Panero et al., 1997)
Measurement model analysis
|Model fit indices||Values of the measurement model||Values of the structural model||Reference standards||References|
Schumacker and Lomax, 2004)
Hu and Bentler, 1998)
Hu and Bentler, 1998)
Hu and Bentler, 1998)
Hu and Bentler, 1998)
Structural model analysis
- Kane L.
- Mastroianni B.
- Arkhipova M.V.
- Belova E.E.
- Gavrikova Y.A.
- Pleskanyuk T.N.
- Arkhipov A.N.
- Bathje G.J.
- Kim E.
- Rau E.
- Bassiouny M.A.
- Kim T.
- ten Have M.
- de Graaf R.
- Ormel J.
- Vilagut G.
- Kovess V.
- Alonso J.
Are attitudes towards mental health help-seeking associated with service use? Results from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders.
Declaration of competing interest
- The theory of planned behavior.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991; 50: 179-211
- Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior.Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2002; 32: 665-683
- Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.Psychological Bulletin. 1988; 103: 411
- Amos (version 23.0)[computer program].IBM SPSS, Chicago2014
- Reaching generation Z. attitude toward technology among the newest generation of school students.in: Popkova E.G. Ostrovskaya V.N. Perspectives on the use of new information and communication technology (ICT) in the modern economy. Springer, Cham2019: 1026-1032
- Developing online support and counseling to enhance family dispute resolution in Australia.Group Decision and Negotiation. 2014; 23: 515-532
- A comprehensive review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions.Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2008; 26: 109-160
- Attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling: Roles of self-concealment, openness to experience, loss of face, stigma, and disclosure expectations among korean college students.International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. 2014; 36: 408-422
- Computer-assisted therapies: Examination of therapist-level barriers to their use.Behavior Therapy. 2013; 44: 614-624
- College students' attitudes, stigma, and intentions toward seeking online and face-to-face counseling.Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2020; 76: 1775-1790
- Are child and adolescent mental health problems increasing in the 21st century? A systematic review.Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2014; 48: 606-616
- Online counseling: Attitudes and potential utilization by college students.Humboldt State University, 2012 ([Unpublished master's thesis])
- Help-seeking attitudes of university students in Turkey.International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. 2020; 42: 37-47
- Counseling and the internet: Asian american and asian international college students' attitudes toward seeking online professional psychological help.Journal of College Counseling. 2004; 7: 140-149
- Computer self-efficacy, learning performance, and the mediating role of learning engagement.Computers in Human Behavior. 2017; 72: 362-370
- Online information searches and help seeking for mental health problems in urban China.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2016; 43: 535-545
- Associations among the number of mental health problems, stigma, and seeking help from psychological services: A path analysis model among Chinese adolescents.Children and Youth Services Review. 2014; 44: 356-362
- Challenges and recommendations for mental health providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: The experience of China's first university-based mental health team.Globalization and Health. 2020; 16: 1-10
- Self-stigma, mental health literacy, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help.Journal of Counseling & Development. 2018; 96: 64-74
- Online counseling: An exploratory survey of Italian psychologists' attitudes towards new ways of interaction.Psychotherapy Research. 2018; 28: 909-924
- Adolescent mental health literacy: Young people's knowledge of depression and social anxiety disorder.Journal of Adolescent Health. 2016; 58: 57-62
- Social psychology of the stigma of mental illness: Public and self-stigma models.in: Maddux J.E. Tangney J.P. Social psychological foundations of clinical psychology. The Guilford Press, 2010: 51-68
- Psychological antecedents to help-seeking behavior: A reanalysis using path modeling structures.Journal of Counseling Psychology. 1999; 46: 381
- Mental health services for children in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results of an expert-based national survey among child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2020; 29: 743-748
- A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User Information Systems: Theory and Results.(Doctoral Thesis) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1985
- Academic stress, parental pressure, anxiety and mental health among Indian high school students.International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science. 2015; 5: 26-34
- Correlation between mental health and blood pressure of adolescents in urban Guiyang Chinese.Journal of School Health. 2010; 31: 55-57
- A new area of mental health care: Online therapy, counseling and guidance.Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science. 2017; 5: 78-83
- Adolescents’ attitudes and intentions toward help-seeking and computer-based treatment for depression.Psychiatry Investigation. 2019; 16: 728
- Online counseling and therapy for mental health problems: A systematic review of individual synchronous interventions using chat.Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2013; 31: 1-21
- New data on the nature of suicidal crises in college students: Shifting the paradigm.Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2009; 40: 213
- Black undergraduate students attitude toward counseling and counselor preference.College Student Journal. 2007; 41: 696-720
- Mental health service utilization among college students in the United States.The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2011; 199: 301-308
- Receiving online psychological counseling and its causes: A structural equation model.Current Psychology. 2018; 37: 591-601
- Multivariate data analysis.PrenticeHall, New Jersey2011
- Correlates of expected eMental health intervention uptake among filipino domestic workers in China.Global Mental Health. 2018; 5e33
- Australian country perspective: The work of beyondblue and SANE Australia.in: Gaebel W. Rössler W. Sartorius N. The stigma of mental illness - End of the story? Springer International Publishing, 2017: 289-315
- Effects of individuals' locus of control and computer self-efficacy on their e-learning acceptance in high-tech companies.Behaviour & Information Technology. 2014; 33: 51-64
- Índices de ajuste en el Modelo de estructura de covarianza: Sensibilidad a la especificación errónea del Modelo subparamizado.Métodos psicológicos. 1998; 3: 424-453
- Modern consumer in cyberspace: Internet and psychology approach.Foundations of Management. 2017; 9: 111-122
- Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults.Aging & Mental Health. 2009; 13: 127-134
- Mental health literacy: Empowering the community to take action for better mental health.American Psychologist. 2012; 67: 231
- Meet generation Z, the ‘millennials on steroids’ who could lead the charge for change in the US. Business Insider.
- The effects of office workers' attitudes to internet health information, e-health literacy on health information seeking behavior and health-related behavioral intention.Journal of Digital Convergence. 2019; 17: 357-367
- Principles and practice of structural equation modeling.Guilford publications, 2015
- " I can do it": Does confidence and perceived ability in learning new ICT skills predict pre-service health professionals' attitude towards engaging in e-healthcare?.Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 2014; 204: 60-66
- Personal stigma, determinants of intention to use technology, and acceptance of internet-based psychological interventions for depression.International Journal of Medical Informatics. 2020; 136104076
- Alienation among college students and attitudes toward face-to-face and online counseling: Implications for student learning.Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. 2015; 14: 28-37
- Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020; 16: 1732
- An internet survey for perceptions of computers and the world wide web: Relationship, prediction, and difference.Computers in Human Behavior. 2002; 18: 17-35
- Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak.The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7: e17-e18
- E-therapy: Practical, ethical, and legal issues.Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2001; 4: 551-563
- Cybercounseling in the United States and South Korea: Implications for counseling college students of the millennial generation and the networked generation.Journal of Counseling & Development. 2008; 86: 178-183
- Attitudes toward e-mental health services in a community sample of adults: Online survey.Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2018; 20e9109
- How Generation Z is changing the tech world. CBS News.https://www.cbsnews.com/news/social-media-fuels-a-change-in-generations-with-the-rise-of-gen-z/Date: 2016
- Help-seeking for mental health problems among Chinese.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2009; 44: 675-684
- Using technology acceptance model to assess teachers' attitude towards use of technology as teaching tool: A SEM approach.International Journal of Computer Applications. 2012; 42: 1-6
- Digital technology for treating and preventing mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries: A narrative review of the literature.The Lancet Psychiatry. 2017; 4: 486-500
- Perceived social support and stress as predictors of help-seeking attitude for mental health among young adults.Covenant International Journal of Psychology. 2019; 4
- PART I: The computer use scale: Four dimensions of how people use computers.Journal of Educational Computing Research. 1997; 16: 297-315
- Stigma scale for receiving psychological help (SSRPH) an examination among adolescent girls.Western Journal of Nursing Research. 2015; 37: 1644-1661
- The generation Z and their social media usage: A review and a research outline.Global Journal of Enterprise Information System. 2017; 9: 110-116
- Effects of parental warmth and academic pressure on anxiety and depression symptoms in chinese adolescents.Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2015; 24: 106-116
- Using structural equation modeling to test for differential reliability and validity: An empirical demonstration.Structural Equation Modeling. 2000; 7: 124-141
- Association between lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms among Chinese middle school students: A cross-sectional study.Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2021; 26: 1266-1273
- Online counseling: A narrative and critical review of the literature.Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2013; 69: 994-1011
- The online and face-to-face counseling attitudes scales: A validation study.Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 2004; 37: 95-111
- Online therapy: Review of relevant definitions, debates, and current empirical support.Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2004; 60: 269-283
- Generation Z in Japan: Raised in anxiety. New generation Z in Asia: Dynamics, differences, digitalisation.Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020
- Psychological help seeking attitudes among malaysian college and university students.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010; 5: 426-430
- Computer self-efficacy, computer anxiety, and attitudes toward the internet: A study among undergraduates in unimas.Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 2005; 8: 205-219
- A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling.Psychology Press, 2004
- A feasibility study of the WHO digital mental health intervention step-by-step to address depression among Chinese young adults.Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2022; 12812667
- Online/cyber counseling services in the COVID-19 outbreak: Are they really new?.Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling. 2020; 74: 166-174
- IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 23.0).IBM Corp, Armonk2015
- The impact of computer use on children's and adolescents' development.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2001; 22: 7-30
- Logging into therapy: Adolescent perceptions of online therapies for mental health problems.Internet Interventions. 2019; 15: 93-99
- Attitudes of psychology graduate students toward face-to-face and online counseling.Philippine Journal of Psychology. 2014; 47: 65-97
- Are attitudes towards mental health help-seeking associated with service use? Results from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2010; 45: 153-163
- Examining the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to understand pre-service teachers intention to use technology [Conference session].in: Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) Conference, Sydney, Australia. 2010
- Predicting the intention to use cybercounseling among chinese adolescents: An extended theory of planned behavior.Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2020; 23: 627-634
- Intergenerational differences in the intention to use psychological cybercounseling: A Chinese case study.Patient Education and Counseling. 2020; 103: 1615-1622
- Factorial validity of a computer self-efficacy scale and the impact of computer training.Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1994; 54: 813-821
- Analysis of attitudes toward computer networks and internet addiction of Taiwanese adolescents.Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2001; 4: 373-376
- Personality and gender as predictors of online counseling use.Journal of Technology in Human Services. 2007; 25: 39-55
- Counseling in the Philippines: Past, present, and future.Journal of Counseling & Development. 2012; 90: 373-377
- Disentangling self-stigma: Are mental illness and help-seeking self-stigmas different?.Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2013; 60: 520
- Generation Z: Technology and social interest.The Journal of Individual Psychology. 2015; 71: 103-113
- Monitoring, mediating, and modeling: Parental influence on adolescent computer and internet use in the United States.Journal of Children and Media. 2015; 9: 40-57
- Stigma of seeking psychological services: Examining college students across ten countries/regions.The Counseling Psychologist. 2017; 45: 170-192
- Preferences for online and/or face-to-face counseling among university students in Malaysia.Frontiers in Psychology. 2018; 9: 64
- Process of translation and adaptation of instruments.World Health Organization, Geneva2015
- Role of stigma and attitudes toward help-seeking from a general practitioner for mental health problems in a rural town.Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2005; 39: 514-521
- The prediction of personality, culture and coping strategies on university students' psychological help seeking attitudes.Turkish Journal of Education. 2020; 9: 134-153
- An empirical examination of client attitudes towards online counseling.Cyberpsychology & Behavior. 2005; 8: 172-177
- Client’s satisfaction in face-to-face counselling and cyber counseling approaches: A comparison.International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2018; 8: 677-684
- Acculturation and attitudes of Asian international students toward seeking psychological help.Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 2003; 31: 205-222
- Investigation and analysis on social adaptation and mental health of secondary/school students.Chinese Health Service Management. 2009; 26: 270-271
User licenseCreative Commons Attribution – NonCommercial – NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) |
For non-commercial purposes:
- Read, print & download
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article (private use only, not for distribution)
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works
- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
- Distribute translations or adaptations of the article
Elsevier's open access license policy