Advertisement

Requirements of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A qualitative study in Turkey

      Highlights

      • Caregivers stated that they had difficulties in managing the problems related to the disease and needed professional help.
      • Caregivers reported that they had problems in family relationships due to changing roles in the family.
      • Treatments should be planned according to the needs of individuals and their families.

      Abstract

      Caregivers have different experiences and difficulties in the patient care process during which the role of providing care is fulfilled. Understanding the requirements of caregivers may help determine the content of the country-specific psychoeducation program needed. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia want certain needs to be met while they provide care to these patients. This qualitative study aims to determine and analyze these needs. The researchers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 15 caregivers. Themes were Themes identified included determined as managing disease behavior, gaining independent living skills, managing social-educational problems, and psychosocial support needs of the family members. Mental health and psychiatric nurses should understand, accept, and protect the needs of caregivers. It is suggested that mental health and psychiatric nurses plan group training about the determined needs and provide support for caregiving family members.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abaoğlu H.
        • Mutlu E.
        • Ak S.
        • Akı E.
        • Yağcıoğlu A.E.A.
        The effect of life skills training on functioning in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.
        Turkish Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 31: 48-56https://doi.org/10.5080/u23723
        • Abd El S.A.E.M.
        • Abd El-Nabi A.A.
        • Fathalla H.E.D.
        Resilience, burden, and quality of life in Egyptian family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
        Egyptian Nursing Journal. 2018; 15: 196
        • Ae-Ngibise K.A.
        • Doku V.C.K.
        • Asante K.P.
        • Owusu-Agyei S.
        The experience of caregivers of people living with serious mental disorders: A study from rural Ghana.
        Global Health Action. 2015; 8: 26957
        • Amagai M.
        • Takahashi M.
        • Amagai F.
        Qualitative study of resilience of family caregivers for patients with schizophrenia in Japan..
        Mental Health in Family Medicine. 2016; 12: 307-312
        • Aziz K.A.
        • Mohammed H.
        • Elamin M.H.
        • El-Saadouni N.M.
        • El-Gabry D.A.
        • Mahmoud B.M.
        • Alhayyas F.
        • Moselhy H.F.
        Schizophrenia: Impact of psychopathology, faith healers and psychoeducation on adherence to medications.
        International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2016; 62: 719-725
        • Azman A.
        • Jamir Singh P.S.
        • Sulaiman J.
        Caregiver coping with the mentally ill: A qualitative study.
        Journal of Mental Health. 2017; 26: 98-103
        • Bademli K.
        • Lök N.
        Feelings, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia..
        International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2020; 66: 452-459https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020916211
        • Brain C.
        • Kymes S.
        • DiBenedetti D.B.
        • Brevig T.
        • Velligan D.I.
        Experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of caregivers of individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A qualitative study.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2018; 18: 253
        • Caqueo-Urízar A.
        • Rus-Calafell M.
        • Craig T.K.
        • Irarrazaval M.
        • Urzúa A.
        • Boyer L.
        • Williams D.R.
        Schizophrenia: Impact on family dynamics.
        Current Psychiatry Reports. 2017; 19: 2
        • Chang K.H.
        • Horrocks S.
        Lived experiences of family caregivers of mentally ill relatives.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2006; 53: 435-443
        • Chen L.
        • Zhao Y.
        • Tang J.
        • Jin G.
        • Liu Y.
        • Zhao X.
        • Lu X.
        The burden, support and needs of primary family caregivers of people experiencing schizophrenia in Beijing communities: A qualitative study.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2019; 19: 75
        • Cleary M.
        • West S.
        • Hunt G.E.
        • McLean L.
        • Kornhaber R.
        A qualitative systematic review of caregivers’ experiences of caring for family diagnosed with schizophrenia.
        Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2020; 41: 667-683https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2019.1710012
        • Colgecen Y.
        • Colgecen M.H.
        Social problems of individuals with psychiatric disorders and their families: a qualitative study on patient and patient relatives.
        in: Congress proceedings series. 2019, December: 27
        • Corbin J.
        • Strauss A.
        Basics of qualitative research : Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory.
        1998
        • Duran S.
        • Eroğlu S.
        Determination of educational needs of psychiatric disease diagnosed patients and their families.
        Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty. 2016; 13: 237-247
        • Durgoji S.
        • Muliyala K.P.
        • Jayarajan D.
        • Chaturvedi S.K.
        Quality of life in schizophrenia: What is important for persons with schizophrenia in India?.
        Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2019; 41: 420
        • Gater A.
        • Rofail D.
        • Marshall C.
        • Tolley C.
        • Abetz-Webb L.
        • Zarit S.H.
        • Berardo C.G.
        Assessing the impact of caring for a person with schizophrenia: Development of the schizophrenia caregiver questionnaire.
        The Patient-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. 2015; 8: 507-520
        • Gonani C.G.
        Family caregiving in mental health: Experience of family caregivers of people living with severe mental illness in rural Malawi.
        (Master's thesis) Harvard Medical School, 2019
        • Grover S.
        • Avasthi A.
        • Singh A.
        • Dan A.
        • Neogi R.
        • Kaur D.
        • Behere P.
        Stigma experienced by caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders: A nationwide multicentric study.
        International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2017; 63: 407-417
        • Hsiao C.Y.
        • Tsai Y.F.
        Factors of caregiver burden and family functioning among Taiwanese family caregivers living with schizophrenia.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2015; 24: 1546-1556https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12745
        • Huang H.M.
        • Jen Y.C.
        • Lien Y.F.
        Stigma experienced by caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A qualitative study.
        International Journal of Nursing & Clinical Practices. 2016; 3: 2-6
        • Hummelinck A.
        • Pollock K.
        Parents information needs about the treatment of their chronically ill child: A qualitative study.
        Patient Education and Counseling. 2006; 62: 228-234
        • Iseselo M.K.
        • Kajula L.
        • Yahya-Malima K.I.
        The psychosocial problems of families caring for relatives with mental illnesses and their coping strategies: A qualitative urban based study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2016; 16: 146
        • Jagannathan A.
        • Thirthalli J.
        • Hamza A.
        • Hariprasad V.R.
        • Nagendra H.R.
        • Gangadhar B.N.
        A qualitative study on the needs of caregivers of inpatients with schizophrenia in India.
        International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2011; 57: 180-194
        • Janardhana N.
        • Raghunandan S.
        • Naidu D.M.
        • Saraswathi L.
        • Seshan V.
        Care giving of people with severe mental illness: an Indian experience.
        Indian journal of psychological medicine. 2015; 37: 184-194https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.155619
        • Kaya Y.
        • Öz F.
        Global social functioning of patients with schizophrenia and care burden of caregiving relatives.
        Journal of Psychiatric Nursing. 2019; 10: 28-38https://doi.org/10.14744/phd.2018.43815
        • Koschorke M.
        • Padmavati R.
        • Kumar S.
        • A C.
        • Weiss H.
        • Chatterjee S.
        • Varghese M.
        • Pereira J.
        • Naik S.
        • Balaji M.
        • Patel V.
        Experiences of stigma and discrimination faced by family caregivers of people with schizophrenia in India.
        Social Science and Medicine. 2017; 178: 66-77https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.01.061
        • Köroğlu A.
        • Hocaoğlu Ç.
        The effect of schizophrenia on family.
        Journal of Düzce University Health Sciences Institute. 2017; 7: 170-175
        • Liu N.
        • Zhang J.
        Experiences of caregivers of family member with schizophrenia in China: A qualitative study.
        Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2020; 56: 201-212https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12412
        • Macedo M.
        • Marques A.
        • Queirós C.
        • Mariotti M.C.
        Schizophrenia, instrumental activities of daily living and executive functions: A qualitative multidimensional approach.
        Cadernos Brasileiros de Terapia Ocupacional. 2018; 26: 287-298
        • Nowak I.
        • Waszkiewicz J.
        • Świtaj P.
        • Sokół-Szawłowska M.
        • Anczewska M.
        A qualitative study of the subjective appraisal of recovery among people with lived experience of schizophrenia in Poland.
        Psychiatric Quarterly. 2017; 88: 435-446
        • Olwit C.
        • Musisi S.
        • Leshabari S.
        • Sanyu I.
        Chronic sorrow: Lived experiences of caregivers of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in Butabika mental hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
        Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2015; 29: 43-48
        • Oza H.
        • Parikh M.N.
        • Vankar G.K.
        Comparison of caregiver burden in schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder.
        Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2017; 19: 32-41
        • Penn D.L.
        • Kohlmaier J.
        • Corrigan P.W.
        Interpersonal factors contributing to the stigma of schizophrenia: Social skills, perceived attractiveness, and symptoms.
        Schizophrenia Research. 2000; 45: 37-45
        • Redubla C.M.A.V.
        • Cuaton G.P.
        Coping and support needs of caregivers of the mentally ill: A phenomenological study in the Philippines.
        International Journal of Caring Sciences. 2019; 12: 1691
        • Rose L.E.
        • Mallinson R.K.
        • Walton-Moss B.J.
        Barriers to family care in psychiatric settings.
        Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2004; 36: 39-47
        • Stanley S.
        • Balakrishnan S.
        • Ilangovan S.
        Psychological distress, perceived burden and quality of life in caregivers of persons with schizophrenia.
        Journal of Mental Health. 2017; 26: 134-141https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1276537
        • Öztürk G.K.
        Caring experiences from perspective of caregivers of individuals with chronic mental illness: A qualitative study.
        The Journal of International Social Research. 2020; 13: 803-808
        • Tamizi Z.
        • Fallahi-Khoshknab M.
        • Dalvandi A.
        • Mohammadi-Shahboulaghi F.
        • Mohammadi E.
        • Bakhshi E.
        Caregiving burden in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A qualitative study.
        Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2020; 9: 12https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_356_19
        • Tong A.
        • Sainsbury P.
        • Craig J.
        Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups.
        International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 2007; 19: 349-357https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzm042
        • Uygur A.B.
        • Danacı A.E.
        Needs of patients with schizophrenia and their predictors.
        Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi. 2019; 30: 180https://doi.org/10.5080/u23283
        • Venkatesh B.T.
        • Andrews T.
        • Parsekar S.S.
        • Singh M.M.
        • Menon N.
        Stigma and mental health-caregivers’ perspective: A qualitative analysis.
        Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2016; 4 (23-27): 803-808https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2020.3999
        • Yıldırım A.
        • Şimşek H.
        Qualitative research methods in social sciences. 5th ed. Distinguished publication, Ankara2013: 72-76
        • Zou H.
        • Li Z.
        • Arthur D.
        • Wang H.
        Self-management in Chinese people with schizophrenia and their caregivers: A qualitative study on facilitators and barriers.
        International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2014; 23 (Aug): 355-363https://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12055