Advertisement

Online HOPE intervention on help-seeking attitudes and intentions among young adults in Singapore: A randomized controlled trial and process evaluation

Published:September 17, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2022.09.008

      Highlights

      • There was extremely high recognition of depression among University students in Singapore.
      • The online HOPE intervention significantly reduced the perception of depression as ‘stress’ and significantly enhanced help-seeking intentions in the intervention group.
      • The online HOPE intervention also had significant improvements in the perceptions of usefulness of antidepressants, antipsychotics and tranquilizers.

      Abstract

      Introduction

      Despite the high prevalence of mental health disorders, professional help seeking was often unsought, worsening impairments in overall functioning among those who experienced them.

      Aim

      This study aimed to evaluate the online HOPE intervention on help-seeking attitudes and intentions among young adults 18 to 24 years old in a University in Singapore. The study also described the process evaluation of the online HOPE intervention.

      Method

      The study adopted a parallel two arms RCT. Outcome measurements measured at baseline, post-test and two-month follow-up were (1) recognition of depression, (2) barriers of help-seeking, (3) help-seeking intentions (4) attitudes about interventions, help sources, medications and (5) participants' perceptions about the intervention.

      Results

      At post-test, intervention group had significantly lower acknowledgement of depression as stress. At two months, control group was significantly more concerned about side effects of medications. There were no significant differences in all barriers of help-seeking between groups, pre and post intervention. The intervention group had greater acknowledgement of antidepressants, tranquilisers and antipsychotics. Thematic analysis revealed four main themes.

      Discussion

      There was high baseline recognition of depression. Improvements in help–seeking intentions were partially attributed to decreased help-seeking barriers.

      Implication for practice

      The online HOPE intervention could be promptly implemented for young adults to enhance the identification of mental health disorders, early help-seeking and recovery. Nurses played an important role in patient education, and online interventions are especially crucial during this Covid period which mandated social distancing. [NCT04266119].

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Angermeyer M.C.
        • Holzinger A.
        • Matschinger H.
        Mental health literacy and attitude towards people with mental illness: A trend analysis based on population surveys in the eastern part of Germany.
        European Psychiatry. 2009; 24: 225-232
        • Bandura A.
        Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
        Psychological Review. 1977; 84: 191
        • Bond K.S.
        • Jorm A.F.
        • Kitchener B.A.
        • Reavley N.J.
        Mental health first aid training for Australian medical and nursing students: An evaluation study.
        BMC Psychology. 2015; 3: 1-9
        • Chow A.
        • Hein A.A.
        • Kyaw W.M.
        Unintended consequence: Influenza plunges with public health response to COVID-19 in Singapore.
        The Journal of Infection. 2020; 81: e68-e69
        • Clarke V.
        • Braun V.
        Thematic analysis.
        in: Encyclopedia of critical psychology. Springer, 2014: 1947-1952
        • Costin D.L.
        • Mackinnon A.J.
        • Griffiths K.M.
        • Batterham P.J.
        • Bennett A.J.
        • Bennett K.
        • Christensen H.
        Health e-cards as a means of encouraging help seeking for depression among young adults: Randomized controlled trial.
        Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2009; 11e42
        • Furnham A.
        • Swami V.
        Mental health literacy: A review of what it is and why it matters.
        International Perspectives in Psychology. 2018; 7: 240-257
        • Goldney R.D.
        • Dunn K.I.
        • Grande E.D.
        • Crabb S.
        • Taylor A.
        Tracking depression-related mental health literacy across South Australia: A decade of change.
        Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2009; 43: 476-483
        • Green J.
        • Thorogood N.
        Qualitative methods for health research.
        Sage, 2018
        • Li T.M.
        • Chau M.
        • Wong P.W.
        • Lai E.S.
        • Yip P.S.
        Evaluation of a web-based social network electronic game in enhancing mental health literacy for young people.
        Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2013; 15e80
        • Lim J.
        The Big Read: With youths more open about mental health, it's time others learn to listen.
        (Retrieved from)
        • O'Reilly C.L.
        • Bell J.S.
        • Kelly P.J.
        • Chen T.F.
        Impact of mental health first aid training on pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour: A controlled trial.
        Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 2011; 45: 549-557
        • Picco L.
        • Abdin E.
        • Chong S.A.
        • Pang S.
        • Shafie S.
        • Chua B.Y.
        • Subramaniam M.
        Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help: Factor structure and socio-demographic predictors.
        Frontiers in Psychology. 2016; 7: 547
        • Reavley N.J.
        • Cvetkovski S.
        • Jorm A.F.
        Sources of information about mental health and links to help seeking: Findings from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.
        Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2011; 46: 1267-1274
        • Reavley N.J.
        • Jorm A.F.
        Public recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatment: Changes in Australia over 16 years.
        The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2012; 200: 419-425
        • Ribeiro Z.M.T.
        • Spadella M.A.
        Content validation of educational material on healthy eating for children under two years of age.
        Revista Paulista de Pediatria. 2018; 36: 155-163
        • Sebastian J.
        • Richards D.
        Changing stigmatizing attitudes to mental health via education and contact with embodied conversational agents.
        Computers in Human Behavior. 2017; 73: 479-488
        • Shandley K.
        • Austin D.
        • Klein B.
        • Kyrios M.
        An evaluation of ‘Reach out Central’: An online gaming program for supporting the mental health of young people.
        Health Education Research. 2010; 25: 563-574
        • Spector J.M.
        • Merrill M.D.
        • Elen J.
        • Bishop M.
        Handbook of research on educational communications and technology.
        Springer, 2014
        • Tay J.L.
        • Goh Y.-S.S.
        • Klainin-Yobas P.
        Online HOPE intervention on mental health literacy among youths in Singapore: An RCT protocol.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2020; 76: 1831-1839
        • Tay J.L.
        • Tay Y.F.
        • Klainin-Yobas P.
        Effectiveness of information and communication technologies interventions to increase mental health literacy: A systematic review.
        Early Intervention in Psychiatry. 2018; 12: 1024-1037
        • Tay J.L.
        • Tay Y.F.
        • Klainin-Yobas P.
        Mental health literacy levels.
        Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2018; 32: 757-763
        • Tay J.L.
        • Goh Y.S.S
        • Sim K
        • Klainin-Yobas P.
        Impact of the HOPE intervention on mental health literacy, psychological well-being and stress levels amongst university undergraduates: A randomised controlled trial.
        International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19: 9772
        • Taylor-Rodgers E.
        • Batterham P.J.
        Evaluation of an online psychoeducation intervention to promote mental health help seeking attitudes and intentions among young adults: Randomised controlled trial.
        Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 168: 65-71
        • World Health Organisation
        Caring for children and adolescents with mental disorders: Setting WHO directions.
        2003 (Retrieved from)