- •Family caregivers play a key role in providing care for patients with schizophrenia
- •Burden are highly prevalent in the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia
- •There is need for effective treatment of burden and healthy lifestyle behavior in these population
- •Physical activity can improve caregivers’ physical and psychosocial health and decrease risk for the development of burden.
The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a physical activity intervention on burden and healthy lifestyle behavior in family caregivers of schizophrenia.
A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of physical activity program on burden and healthy lifestyle behavior in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. The “Physical Activity Program” consisted of 5 min of warm-up activities as the initial segment, 20 min of rhythmic exercises as the activity segment, 5 min of cool down exercises as the final segment and 30 min of free walking. The program consisted of 8 sessions. The Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Scale were applied to the physical activity and control groups ahead of the program's implementation. A total of 60 caregivers were randomly distributed to the intervention (n = 30) and control groups (n = 30). Post-intervention measurement was completed by 60 caregivers and all the caregivers completed the intervention.
Significant differences were found on the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale score and Healthy Lifestyle Behavior score between the groups.
Future research should examine with larger sample groups, carry out interventions, and apply the physical activity intervention by targeting caregivers, along with different interventions.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Preventive strategies for mental health.The Lancet Psychiatry. 2018; 5: 591-604
- Leisure time physical activity and mortality: A detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship.JAMA Internal Medicine. 2015; 175: 959-967
- The relationship between the burden of caregiving, submissive behaviors and depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. 2018; 32: 229-234https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2017.11.007
- Healthy life style behavior scale II:A reliability and validity study.Journal of Cumhuriyet University School of Nursing. 2008; 12: 1-13
- Relationship between leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and symptoms of depression and anxiety: Evidence from a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents.BMJ Open. 2018; 8e021119
- The burden, support and needs of primary family caregivers of people experiencing schizophrenia in Beijing communities: A qualitative study.BMC Psychiatry. 2019; 19: 1-10
- Creating an upward spiral: A qualitative study of caregivers' experience of participating in a structured physical activity programme.European Journal of Cancer Care. 2017; 26e12684https://doi.org/10.1111/ecc.12684
- Sense of coherence, burden and mental health in caregiving: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019; 242: 14-21https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.002
- Facilitators of healthy life style behaviors in persons with schizophrenia—A qualitative feasibility pilot study.Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2019; 40: 3-8https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.01.003
- Comparative study on caregiver burden and their quality of life in caring patients of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder.Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62: 140https://doi.org/10.25215/0802.081
- Caregiver burden and health-related quality of life among primary family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study.Quality of Life Research. 2020; 29: 2745-2757
- Development and validation of a coping scale for caregivers in Malaysia.The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017; 24: 83https://doi.org/10.21315/mjms2017.24.3.10
- Zarit Yaşam Yükü Bakım Ölçeğinin Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirliği (Yüksek Lisans Tezi) Validity and Reliability of Zarit Burden of Care Scale.(Master's Thesis) Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Denizli2006 (in Turkish)
- A descriptive systematic review of physical activity interventions for caregivers: Effects on caregivers’ and care recipients’ psychosocial outcomes, physical activity levels, and physical health.Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2016; 50: 907-919https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-016-9819-3
- The effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms and quality of life among elderly nursing home residents: Randomized controlled trial.Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2017; 70: 92-98
- Kronik psikiyatri Hastalarına uygulanan fiziksel egsersiz Programlarının Etkinliği: Sistematik derleme.Current Approaches in Psychiatry/Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar. 2016; 8: 354-366https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.253440
- Physical activity and the prevention of depression: A systematic review of prospective studies.American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 45: 649-657
- Schizophrenia—An overview.JAMA Psychiatry. 2020; 77: 201-210
- Mobile apps for health behavior change in physical activity, diet, drug and alcohol use, and mental health: Systematic review.JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 2020; 8e17046https://doi.org/10.2196/17046
- Caregiver burden for people with schizophrenia in Medan, Indonesia.Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 2021; 42: 790-793https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1847223
- Meta-analysis of physical activity and effects of social function and quality of life on the physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2019; 269: 517-527
- The burden of schizophrenia on caregivers.Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. 2018; 8: 105https://doi.org/10.5455/jmood.20171228112101
- Scoping review of family interventions that support the physical health of caregivers.Research on Social Work Practice. 2021; 31: 234-243
- Aerobic exercise lengthens telomeres and reduces stress in family caregivers: A randomized controlled trial—Curt Richter award paper 2018.Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018; 98: 245-252
- A meta-meta-analysis of the effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety in non-clinical adult populations.Health Psychology Review. 2015; 9: 366-378
- Effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome, cardiorespiratory fitness, and symptoms in schizophrenia include decreased mortality.Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2018; 9: 690
- Exploring physical activity with a low psychological burden and high feasibility in Japan: A qualitative study.Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2016; 21: 1006-1015https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2016.1139140
- Positive and negative impacts of schizophrenia on family caregivers: A systematic review and qualitative meta-summary.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2019; 54: 277-290https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-018-1617-8
- Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.Journal of Internal Medicine. 2011; 269 ([PubMed] [Google Scholar]): 107-117
- Correlates of caregiving burden in schizophrenia: A cross-sectional, comparative analysis from India.Social Work in Mental Health. 2017; 15: 284-307https://doi.org/10.1080/15332985.2016.1220440
- Psychological distress, perceived burden and quality of life in caregivers of persons with schizophrenia.Journal of Mental Health. 2017; 26: 134-141https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2016.1276537
- Attenuation of neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease by motor intervention: A controlled trial.Clinics. 2011; 66: 1353-1360
- Psychometric evaluation of the health promotion life-style profile II.University of Nebraska Medical Center, 1996 (Unpublished manuscript)
- Relationship between mental health and burden among primary caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia.Family Process. 2019; 58: 370-383https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12340
- Relatives of the impaired elderly: Correlates of feelings of burden.The Gerontologist. 1980; 20: 649-655https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/20.6.649
Published online: December 16, 2022
Accepted: December 10, 2022
Received in revised form: November 21, 2022
Received: June 21, 2022
© 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.