Research Article|Articles in Press

The effect of Emotional Freedom Technique and music applied to pregnant women who experienced prenatal loss on psychological growth, well-being, and cortisol level: A randomized controlled trial


      • A history of prenatal loss may adversely affect the psycho-social health of pregnant women.
      • Emotional freedom technique (EFT) and music practice can lead to improvements in various psychological and physiological health conditions.
      • EFT and music applied to pregnant women with a history of prenatal loss reduce prenatal anxiety and cortisol levels and increase psychological growth and well-being.
      • There was no study showing that EFT and music were applied to pregnant women with a history of prenatal loss.



      Research has shown that application of Emotional Freedom Technique and music ensures psychological growth, increases well-being, and decreases cortisol level.


      In the study, it was aimed to determine the effect of EFT and music applied to pregnant women who had experienced prenatal loss on their psychological growth, well-being, and cortisol level.


      The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial with 153 pregnant women, 53 in EFT group, 53 in music group, and 53 in the control group. The study data were collected through Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS), Subjective Units of Experience (SUE) Scale, Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and WHO-5 Well-Being Index, and saliva samples were taken for cortisol evaluation. EFT was applied to the women two times every other week; the women in the music group listened to music two times every other week. Throughout the week following the first intervention, the women continued the interventions at home.


      It was determined that EFT and music significantly decreased the participants' subjective anxiety and salivary cortisol median scores, the lowest anxiety was in the EFT group, and PTGI and WHO-5 Well-Being Index mean scores increased (p < 0.005). Further analyses showed that EFT was more effective in terms of increasing well-being than music (p < 0.001; a > b > c). It was determined that the anxiety levels and salivary cortisol median values of the control group were statistically significantly higher compared to the EFT and music groups (p < 0.001).


      It was found that EFT and music applied to the women who had experienced prenatal loss decreased anxiety, ensured psychological growth, improved well-being, and decreased salivary cortisol level.


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